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Research Output 2004 2019

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2019

Anti-tumor necrosis factor α therapy associates to type 17 helper T lymphocytes immunological shift and significant microbial changes in dextran sodium sulphate colitis

Petito, V., Graziani, C., Lopetuso, L. R., Fossati, M., Battaglia, A., Arena, V., Scannone, D., Quaranta, G., Quagliariello, A., Del Chierico, F., Putignani, L., Masucci, L., Sanguinetti, M., Sgambato, A., Gasbarrini, A. & Scaldaferri, F., Mar 28 2019, In : World Journal of Gastroenterology. 25, 12, p. 1465-1477 13 p.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Dextran Sulfate
Colitis
Helper-Inducer T-Lymphocytes
Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha
Enterococcaceae

Daily Consumption of Orange Juice from Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck cv. Cara Cara and cv. Bahia Differently Affects Gut Microbiota Profiling as Unveiled by an Integrated Meta-Omics Approach

Brasili, E., Hassimotto, N. M. A., Del Chierico, F., Marini, F., Quagliariello, A., Sciubba, F., Miccheli, A., Putignani, L. & Lajolo, F., Feb 6 2019, In : Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry. 67, 5, p. 1381-1391 11 p.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

formic acid
orange juice
Citrus sinensis
Metabolites
intestinal microorganisms
Biomarkers
HIV
Blood Vessels
Inflammation
Cardiovascular Diseases
Biomarkers
HIV
Blood Vessels
Inflammation
Cardiovascular Diseases

Fecal and Mucosal Microbiota Profiling in Irritable Bowel Syndrome and Inflammatory Bowel Disease

Lo Presti, A., Zorzi, F., Del Chierico, F., Altomare, A., Cocca, S., Avola, A., De Biasio, F., Russo, A., Cella, E., Reddel, S., Calabrese, E., Biancone, L., Monteleone, G., Cicala, M., Angeletti, S., Ciccozzi, M., Putignani, L. & Guarino, M. P. L., 2019, In : Frontiers in Microbiology. 10, p. 1655

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Irritable Bowel Syndrome
Microbiota
Inflammatory Bowel Diseases
Biomarkers
Discriminant Analysis

Gut Microbial, Inflammatory and Metabolic Signatures in Older People with Physical Frailty and Sarcopenia: Results from the BIOSPHERE Study

Picca, A., Ponziani, F. R., Calvani, R., Marini, F., Biancolillo, A., Coelho-Junior, H. J., Gervasoni, J., Primiano, A., Putignani, L., Del Chierico, F., Reddel, S., Gasbarrini, A., Landi, F., Bernabei, R. & Marzetti, E., Dec 26 2019, In : Nutrients. 12, 1

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

sarcopenia
Sarcopenia
intestinal microorganisms
Ruminococcus
inflammation
Probiotics
Atopic Dermatitis
Eubacterium
Propionibacterium
Metagenomics

Hepatocellular Carcinoma Is Associated With Gut Microbiota Profile and Inflammation in Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease

Ponziani, F. R., Bhoori, S., Castelli, C., Putignani, L., Rivoltini, L., Del Chierico, F., Sanguinetti, M., Morelli, D., Paroni Sterbini, F., Petito, V., Reddel, S., Calvani, R., Camisaschi, C., Picca, A., Tuccitto, A., Gasbarrini, A., Pompili, M. & Mazzaferro, V., 2019, In : Hepatology. 69, 1, p. 107-120 14 p.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Multitasking
Immune system
Proteome
Bioinformatics
Chemical analysis
2018
Bifidobacterium
Lactobacillus
Fatty Liver
Health
Alcoholic Fatty Liver
Bifidobacterium
Lactobacillus
Fatty Liver
Health
Alcoholic Fatty Liver

Gut Microbiota Markers in Obese Adolescent and Adult Patients: Age-Dependent Differential Patterns

Del Chierico, F., Abbatini, F., Russo, A., Quagliariello, A., Reddel, S., Capoccia, D., Caccamo, R., Ginanni Corradini, S., Nobili, V., De Peppo, F., Dallapiccola, B., Leonetti, F., Silecchia, G. & Putignani, L., 2018, In : Frontiers in Microbiology. 9, p. 1210 12 p.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Microbiota
Obesity
Bile Acids and Salts
Weights and Measures
Steroids
Pediatrics
Brain
Biomarkers
Gastrointestinal Microbiome
Pediatric Autoimmune Neuropsychiatric Disorders Associated with Streptococcal infections

Gut microbiota signatures in cystic fibrosis: Loss of host CFTR function drives the microbiota enterophenotype

Vernocchi, P., Del Chierico, F., Russo, A., Majo, F., Rossitto, M., Valerio, M., Casadei, L., La Storia, A., De Filippis, F., Rizzo, C., Manetti, C., Paci, P., Ercolini, D., Marini, F., Fiscarelli, E. V., Dallapiccola, B., Lucidi, V., Miccheli, A. & Putignani, L., 2018, In : PLoS One. 13, 12, p. e0208171

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

cystic fibrosis
Microbiota
intestinal microorganisms
Cystic Fibrosis
Digestive system

Gut mucosal-associated microbiota better discloses Inflammatory Bowel Disease differential patterns than faecal microbiota

Altomare, A., Putignani, L., Del Chierico, F., Cocca, S., Angeletti, S., Ciccozzi, M., Tripiciano, C., Dalla Piccola, B., Cicala, M. & Guarino, M. P. L., Dec 3 2018, In : Digestive and Liver Disease.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Microbiota
Inflammatory Bowel Diseases
Enterobacteriaceae
Acidaminococcus
Biomarkers

Hepatocellular carcinoma is associated with gut microbiota profile and inflammation in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease

Ponziani, F. R., Bhoori, S., Castelli, C., Putignani, L., Rivoltini, L., Del Chierico, F., Sanguinetti, M., Morelli, D., Paroni Sterbini, F., Petito, V., Reddel, S., Calvani, R., Camisaschi, C., Picca, A., Tuccitto, A., Gasbarrini, A., Pompili, M. & Mazzaferro, V., Apr 17 2018, In : Hepatology. 14 p.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Hepatocellular Carcinoma
Inflammation
Fibrosis
Leukocyte L1 Antigen Complex
Bacteroides

Influence of hepatitis C virus eradication with direct-acting antivirals on the gut microbiota in patients with cirrhosis

Ponziani, F. R., Putignani, L., Paroni Sterbini, F., Petito, V., Picca, A., Del Chierico, F., Reddel, S., Calvani, R., Marzetti, E., Sanguinetti, M., Gasbarrini, A. & Pompili, M., Oct 22 2018, In : Alimentary Pharmacology and Therapeutics.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Hepacivirus
Antiviral Agents
Fibrosis
Virus Diseases
Liver Cirrhosis
Klebsiella
pneumonia
transplantation
antibiotics
Klebsiella pneumoniae
Juvenile Arthritis
Microbiota
Longitudinal Studies
Cohort Studies
Dysbiosis

Spleen development is modulated by neonatal gut microbiota

Rosado, M. M., Aranburu, A., Scarsella, M., Cascioli, S., Giorda, E., Del Chierico, F., Mortera, S. L., Mortari, E. P., Petrini, S., Putignani, L. & Carsetti, R., Jul 2018, In : Immunology Letters. 199, p. 1-15 15 p.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Secretory Immunoglobulin A
Immunoglobulin A
Milk
Spleen
Plasma Cells
2017
Metagenomics
cystic fibrosis
Probiotics
intestinal microorganisms
Cystic Fibrosis

Detection and prevalence of protozoan parasites in ready-to-eat packaged salads on sale in Italy

Caradonna, T., Marangi, M., Del Chierico, F., Ferrari, N., Reddel, S., Bracaglia, G., Normanno, G., Putignani, L. & Giangaspero, A., Oct 1 2017, In : Food Microbiology. 67, p. 67-75 9 p.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Cryptosporidium
salads
Blastocystis hominis
Cyclospora cayetanensis
Toxoplasma

Effect of thyme essential oil and Lactococcus lactis CBM21 on the microbiota composition and quality of minimally processed lamb's lettuce

Siroli, L., Patrignani, F., Serrazanetti, D. I., Vernocchi, P., Del Chierico, F., Russo, A., Torriani, S., Putignani, L., Gardini, F. & Lanciotti, R., Dec 1 2017, In : Food Microbiology. 68, p. 61-70 10 p.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Valerianella locusta
Thymus Plant
Lettuce
Lactococcus lactis
thyme

Proceedings of the 2017 WAO Symposium on Hot Topics in Allergy: Pediatric & Regulatory Aspects: Rome, Italy/Vatican City. 27-29 April 2017

Traina, G., Valluzzi, R., Fierro, V., Riccardi, C., Artesani, M. C., De Vuono, A., Fiocchi, A., Martelli, A. G., Ríos, L. A., Alcocer, C. R., Navarrete, E., Del Rio Navarro, B. E., Gonzalez, V., Velasco, B., Perez Aviles, H. J., Fernandez, R. J., Pozo, F. C., Farhan, A. J., Arshad, H., Hussain, A. & 204 others, Sharikadze, O., Okhotnikova, O., Alcover, J., Rodriguez, D., Pineda, F., Dalal, I., Weinbrand-Goichberg, J., Benor, S., Rottem, M., Kivity, S., Sato, S., Yanagida, N., Ebisawa, M., Umanets, T., Pineda, F., Antipkin, Y., Barzylovich, V., Lapshyn, V., Umanets, T., Umanets, M., Yuriev, S., Pineda, F., Rodriguez, D., Alcover, J., Bekir, S., Pincock, T., Vieira Hernandez, A., Capriles Hulett, A., Sánchez Borges, M., Fabiano, F., Albarran, C., Goyal, R., Gupta, S., Gaurav, G., Luskin, A. T., Griffin, N. M., Wagelie-Steffen, A., Trzaskoma, B. L., Limb, S. L., Busse, W. W., Zeiger, R. S., Gonzalez-Reyes, E., Casale, T. B., Chipps, B. E., Sugizaki, C., Goto, F., Sato, S., Yanagida, N., Ebisawa, M., Yamaide, A., Mitsunaga, K., Tomiita, M., Hoshioka, A., Shimojo, N., Pop, L. L., Ciucǎ, I-M., Tǎmaş, L., Lazarescu, M., Pienar, C., Yamaide, F., Fikri, B., Sato, H., Shimojo, N., Okishima, N., Kobayashi, M., Takai, M., Nishigata, K., Yoda, R., Oana, Y-T., Kajiwara, C., Shimodaira, M., Suzuki, T., Iizawa, H., Kamijo, K., Karmakar, B., Bhattacharya, S. G., Blohlávková, S., Kopelentová, E., Víšek, P., Štádler, J., Šetinová, I., Novobílská, J., Lundelin, K., Salminen, S., Isolauri, E., Pitt, T., Flanders, T., Peñalver, M., Martínez, P., Lluch, M., Malet, A., Nam, Y-H., Jin, H. J., Lee, S-K., Kulalert, P., Sritipsukho, P., Pathumanond, J., Baynova, K., Labella, M., De Aramburu, T., Prados, M., Haanpää, L., Aarnio, J., Nermes, M., Af Ursin, P., Kaljonen, A., Isolauri, E., Bala, N., Bhagwat, K., Hindley, J., Chapman, M., Baalasubramanian, S., Besednjak-Kocijančič, L., SenGupta, K., Bhattacharya, S. G., Chipps, B. E., Antonova, E., Kong, A. M., Iqbal, A., Teague, W. G., Chipps, B. E., Antonova, E., Trzaskoma, B., Ortiz, B., Paknis, B., Iqbal, A., Rosen, K., Szefler, S., Alblooshi, A., Al-Hammadi, S., Vega, A., Gutiérrez-Rivas, R., Alonso, A. M., Beitia, J. M., Belén Mateo, M., Cárdenas, R., García-Domínguez, J. J., Pitchon Dos Reis, R., Gonçalves Alvim, C., Andrade, C., Reis, A., Ribeiro, H., Panaitescu Bunu, C., Marusciac, L., Paralescu, S., Tamas, P., Panitescu Bunu, C., Marusciac, L., Paralescu, S., Tamas, P., Martí Guadaño, E., Escobar Bolaños, C., Martí José, N., Pau Casanovas, P., Biarnés Rib, G., Castells, M., de Vicente Jiménez, T., Mennini, M., Riccardi, C., De Angelis, P., Rea, F., Malamisura, M., Tambucci, R., Fiocchi, A., Dall'Oglio, L., Mennini, M., Del Chierico, F., Napolitano, T., Reddel, S., Vernocchi, P., D'Ambrosio, A., Putignani, L., Artesani, M. C., Dahdah, L., Fierro, V., Banzato, C., Echeverría Zudaire, L. A., Plaza, A. M., Bosque García, M., Íbero, M., Mazzina, O., Fierro, V., Marzano, V., Riccardi, C., Mazzina, O., Dahdah, L., Mennini, M., Artesani, M. C., Mazzina, O., Pecora, V., Koch, P., Valluzzi, R., Fierro, V., Fiocchi, A., Pecora, V., Valentini, D., Mennini, M., Dahdah, L., Mazzina, O., Santamaria, F., Valluzzi, R., Mukherjee, A., Kandhare, A. & Bodhankar, S., 2017, In : World Allergy Organization Journal. 10, Suppl 2, p. 39

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Protection against pertussis in humans correlates to elevated serum antibodies and memory B cells

The Pertussis Study Group, Sep 15 2017, In : Frontiers in Immunology. 8, SEP, 1158.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Whooping Cough
B-Lymphocytes
Antibodies
Serum
Mothers

“Omic” investigations of protozoa and worms for a deeper understanding of the human gut “parasitome”

Marzano, V., Mancinelli, L., Bracaglia, G., Del Chierico, F., Vernocchi, P., Di Girolamo, F., Garrone, S., Tchidjou Kuekou, H., D’Argenio, P., Dallapiccola, B., Urbani, A. & Putignani, L., Nov 2 2017, In : PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases. 11, 11

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Parasites
Bacteria
Tropical Medicine
Internationality
Metabolomics
2016
Dysbiosis
Irritable Bowel Syndrome
Inflammatory Bowel Diseases
Microbiota
Epigenomics

Gut microbiota profiling of pediatric nonalcoholic fatty liver disease and obese patients unveiled by an integrated meta-omics-based approach

Del Chierico, F., Nobili, V., Vernocchi, P., Russo, A., Stefanis, C. D., Gnani, D., Furlanello, C., Zandonà, A., Paci, P., Capuani, G., Dallapiccola, B., Miccheli, A., Alisi, A. & Putignani, L., 2016, (Accepted/In press) In : Hepatology.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Pediatrics
Ruminococcus
Gastrointestinal Microbiome
Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease
Metagenomics

Identification and typing of free-living Acanthamoeba spp. by MALDI-TOF MS Biotyper

Del Chierico, F., Di Cave, D., Accardi, C., Santoro, M., Masotti, A., D'Alfonso, R., Berrilli, F., Urbani, A. & Putignani, L., Nov 1 2016, In : Experimental Parasitology. 170, p. 82-89 8 p.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Acanthamoeba
Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption-Ionization Mass Spectrometry
Genotype
Ribosomal DNA
Endpoint Determination

Identification and typing of free-living Acanthamoeba spp. by MALDI-TOF MS Biotyper

Del Chierico, F., Di Cave, D., Accardi, C., Santoro, M., Masotti, A., D'Alfonso, R., Berrilli, F., Urbani, A. & Putignani, L., Nov 1 2016, In : Experimental Parasitology. 170, p. 82-89 8 p.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Acanthamoeba
Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption-Ionization Mass Spectrometry
Genotype
Ribosomal DNA
Endpoint Determination

Monitoring perinatal gut microbiota in mouse models by mass spectrometry approaches: Parental genetic background and breastfeeding effects

Mortera, S. L., Del Chierico, F., Vernocchi, P., Rosado, M. M., Cavola, A., Chierici, M., Pieroni, L., Urbani, A., Carsetti, R., Lante, I., Dallapiccola, B. & Putignani, L., Sep 26 2016, In : Frontiers in Microbiology. 7, 1523.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Breast Feeding
Immunoglobulin A
Mass Spectrometry
Microbiota
Mothers

Monitoring perinatal gut microbiota in mouse models by mass spectrometry approaches: Parental genetic background and breastfeeding effects

Mortera, S. L., Del Chierico, F., Vernocchi, P., Rosado, M. M., Cavola, A., Chierici, M., Pieroni, L., Urbani, A., Carsetti, R., Lante, I., Dallapiccola, B. & Putignani, L., Sep 26 2016, In : Frontiers in Microbiology. 7, 1523.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Breast Feeding
Immunoglobulin A
Mass Spectrometry
Microbiota
Mothers
2015

Choice of next-generation sequencing pipelines

Del Chierico, F., Ancora, M., Marcacci, M., Cammà, C., Putignani, L. & Conti, S., 2015, In : Methods in molecular biology (Clifton, N.J.). 1231, p. 31-47 17 p.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Chromosome Mapping
Firearms
Transcriptome
Genomic Structural Variation
Genome

Effects of sub-lethal high-pressure homogenization treatment on the outermost cellular structures and the volatile-molecule profiles of two strains of probiotic lactobacilli

Tabanelli, G., Vernocchi, P., Patrignani, F., Chierico, F. D., Putignani, L., Vinderola, G., Reinheimer, J. A., Gardini, F. & Lanciotti, R., 2015, In : Frontiers in Microbiology. 6, SEP, 01006.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Probiotics
Lactobacillus
Cellular Structures
Pressure
Proteomics

Mechanisms of antibiotic resistance to enrofloxacin in uropathogenic Escherichia coli in dog

Piras, C., Soggiu, A., Greco, V., Martino, P. A., Del Chierico, F., Putignani, L., Urbani, A., Nally, J. E., Bonizzi, L. & Roncada, P., Sep 8 2015, In : Journal of Proteomics. 127, p. 365-376 12 p.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Uropathogenic Escherichia coli
Microbial Drug Resistance
Escherichia coli
Dogs
Anti-Bacterial Agents

Phylogenetic and metabolic tracking of gut microbiota during perinatal development

Del Chierico, F., Vernocchi, P., Petrucca, A., Paci, P., Fuentes, S., Praticò, G., Capuani, G., Masotti, A., Reddel, S., Russo, A., Vallone, C., Salvatori, G., Buffone, E., Signore, F., Rigon, G., Dotta, A., Miccheli, A., De Vos, W. M., Dallapiccola, B. & Putignani, L., Sep 2 2015, In : PLoS One. 10, 9, e0137347.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Metabolome
Metabolites
intestinal microorganisms
Microbiota
phylogeny
Probiotics
Systems Biology
Food Hypersensitivity
Immune System
Food
2014

A metaproteomic pipeline to identify newborn mouse gut phylotypes

Del Chierico, F., Petrucca, A., Mortera, S. L., Vernocchi, P., Rosado, M. M., Pieroni, L., Carsetti, R., Urbani, A. & Putignani, L., Jan 31 2014, In : Journal of Proteomics. 97, p. 17-26 10 p.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Pipelines
Pentoses
Proteobacteria
Functional analysis
Riboflavin
Docosahexaenoic Acids
labor
Premature Obstetric Labor
pregnancy
Rupture
Disease control
Mediterranean Diet
diets
Nutrition
food
liver
Liver
platforms
Fatty Liver
Liver Diseases

Proteomics boosts translational and clinical microbiology

Del Chierico, F., Petrucca, A., Vernocchi, P., Bracaglia, G., Fiscarelli, E., Bernaschi, P., Muraca, M., Urbani, A. & Putignani, L., Jan 31 2014, In : Journal of Proteomics. 97, p. 69-87 19 p.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Microbiology
Proteomics
Pathogens
Proteome
Ecosystems
Microbiota
Parturition
Dysbiosis
Translational Medical Research
Metabolomics
2013

Microbial tracking of multidrug-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae isolates in a pediatric hospital setting

Bernaschi, P., Del Chierico, F., Petrucca, A., Argentieri, A., Ciofi Degli Atti, M., Ciliento, G., Carletti, M., Muraca, M., Locatelli, F. & Putignani, L., Apr 2013, In : International Journal of Immunopathology and Pharmacology. 26, 2, p. 463-472 10 p.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Pediatric Hospitals
Klebsiella pneumoniae
Disease Outbreaks
Mass Spectrometry
Bacterial Typing Techniques
2012

Early-life gut microbiota under physiological and pathological conditions: The central role of combined meta-omics-based approaches

Del Chierico, F., Vernocchi, P., Bonizzi, L., Carsetti, R., Castellazzi, A. M., Dallapiccola, B., de Vos, W., Guerzoni, M. E., Manco, M., Marseglia, G. L., Muraca, M., Roncada, P., Salvatori, G., Signore, F., Urbani, A. & Putignani, L., Aug 3 2012, In : Journal of Proteomics. 75, 15, p. 4580-4587 8 p.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Microbiology
Pediatrics
Pathogens
Ecosystems
Aging of materials

Human serum proteome analysis: New source of markers in metabolic disorders

Di Girolamo, F., Del Chierico, F., Caenaro, G., Lante, I., Muraca, M. & Putignani, L., Dec 2012, In : Biomarkers in Medicine. 6, 6, p. 759-773 15 p.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Biomarkers
Proteome
Mass spectrometry
Proteomics
Mass Spectrometry

Integration of datasets from different analytical techniques to assess the impact of nutrition on human metabolome.

Vernocchi, P., Vannini, L., Gottardi, D., Del Chierico, F., Serrazanetti, D. I., Ndagijimana, M. & Guerzoni, M. E., 2012, In : Frontiers in cellular and infection microbiology. 2, p. 156 1 p.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Metabolomics
Metabolome
Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy
Eating
Synbiotics

MALDI-TOF MS proteomic phenotyping of filamentous and other fungi from clinical origin

Del Chierico, F., Masotti, A., Onori, M., Fiscarelli, E., Mancinelli, L., Ricciotti, G., Alghisi, F., Dimiziani, L., Manetti, C., Urbani, A., Muraca, M. & Putignani, L., Jun 18 2012, In : Journal of Proteomics. 75, 11, p. 3314-3330 17 p.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption-Ionization Mass Spectrometry
Fungi
Proteomics
Neosartorya
Emericella

Preliminary evidences on mitochondrial injury and impaired oxidative metabolism in breast cancer

Putignani, L., Raffa, S., Pescosolido, R., Rizza, T., Del Chierico, F., Leone, L., Aimati, L., Signore, F., Carrozzo, R., Callea, F., Torrisi, M. R. & Grammatico, P., May 2012, In : Mitochondrion. 12, 3, p. 363-369 7 p.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Oxidative Phosphorylation
Adenosine Triphosphate
Breast Neoplasms
Wounds and Injuries
Mitochondria
2011

Investigation of Toxoplasma gondii presence in farmed shellfish by nested-PCR and real-time PCR fluorescent amplicon generation assay (FLAG)

Putignani, L., Mancinelli, L., Chierico, F. D., Menichella, D., Adlerstein, D., Angelici, M. C., Marangi, M., Berrilli, F., Caffara, M., Regalbono, D. A. F. D. & Giangaspero, A., Feb 2011, In : Experimental Parasitology. 127, 2, p. 409-417 9 p.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Shellfish
Toxoplasma
Crassostrea
Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction
Polymerase Chain Reaction