β-Arrestin1 and β-Arrestin2 Are Required to Support the Activity of the CXCL12/HMGB1 Heterocomplex on CXCR4: Frontiers in Immunology

G. D’Agostino, M. Artinger, M. Locati, L. Perez, D.F. Legler, M.E. Bianchi, C. Rüegg, M. Thelen, A. Marchese, M.B.L. Rocchi, V. Cecchinato, M. Uguccioni

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

The chemokine receptor CXCR4 plays a fundamental role in homeostasis and pathology by orchestrating recruitment and positioning of immune cells, under the guidance of a CXCL12 gradient. The ability of chemokines to form heterocomplexes, enhancing their function, represents an additional level of regulation on their cognate receptors. In particular, the multi-faceted activity of the heterocomplex formed between CXCL12 and the alarmin HMGB1 is emerging as an unexpected player able to modulate a variety of cell responses, spanning from tissue regeneration to chronic inflammation. Nowadays, little is known on the selective signaling pathways activated when CXCR4 is triggered by the CXCL12/HMGB1 heterocomplex. In the present work, we demonstrate that this heterocomplex acts as a CXCR4 balanced agonist, activating both G protein and β-arrestins-mediated signaling pathways to sustain chemotaxis. We generated β-arrestins knock out HeLa cells by CRISPR/Cas9 technology and show that the CXCL12/HMGB1 heterocomplex-mediated actin polymerization is primarily β-arrestin1 dependent, while chemotaxis requires both β-arrestin1 and β-arrestin2. Triggering of CXCR4 with the CXCL12/HMGB1 heterocomplex leads to an unexpected receptor retention on the cell surface, which depends on β-arrestin2. In conclusion, the CXCL12/HMGB1 heterocomplex engages the β-arrestin proteins differently from CXCL12, promoting a prompt availability of CXCR4 on the cell surface, and enhancing directional cell migration. These data unveil the signaling induced by the CXCL12/HMGB1 heterocomplex in view of identifying biased CXCR4 antagonists or agonists targeting the variety of functions it exerts. © Copyright © 2020 D’Agostino, Artinger, Locati, Perez, Legler, Bianchi, Rüegg, Thelen, Marchese, Rocchi, Cecchinato and Uguccioni.
Original languageEnglish
JournalFront. Immunol.
Volume11
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2020

Keywords

  • cell migration
  • CXCL12
  • CXCL12/HMGB1 heterocomplex
  • CXCR4
  • HMGB1
  • β-arrestin

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