β2-glycoprotein I, lipopolysaccharide and endothelial TLR4: Three players in the two hit theory for anti-phospholipid-mediated thrombosis

Elena Raschi, Cecilia B. Chighizola, Claudia Grossi, Nicoletta Ronda, Rita Gatti, Pier Luigi Meroni, M. Orietta Borghi

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

The thrombogenic effect of β2-glycoprotein I (β2GPI)-dependent anti-phospholipid antibodies (aPL) in animal models was found to be LPS dependent. Since β2GPI behaves as LPS scavenger, LPS/β2GPI complex was suggested to account for invitro cell activation through LPS/TLR4 involvement being LPS the actual bridge ligand between β2GPI and TLR4 at least in monocytes/macrophages. However, no definite information is available on the interaction among β2GPI, LPS and endothelial TLR4 in spite of the main role of endothelial cells (EC) in clotting. To analyse at the endothelial level the need of LPS, we investigated the invitro interaction of β2GPI with endothelial TLR4 and we assessed the role of LPS in such an interaction.To do this, we evaluated the direct binding and internalization of β2GPI by confocal microscopy in living TLR4-MD2 transfected CHO cells (CHO/TLR4-MD2) and β2GPI binding to CHO/TLR4-MD2 cells and human umbilical cord vein EC (HUVEC) by flow cytometry and cell-ELISA using anti-β2GPI monoclonal antibodies in the absence or presence of various concentrations of exogenous LPS. To further investigate the role of TLR4, we performed anti-β2GPI antibody binding and adhesion molecule up-regulation in TLR4-silenced HUVEC.Confocal microscopy studies show that β2GPI does interact with TLR4 at the cell membrane and is internalized in cytoplasmic granules in CHO/TLR4-MD2 cells. β2GPI binding to CHO/TLR4-MD2 cells and HUVEC is also confirmed by flow cytometry and cell-ELISA, respectively. The interaction between β2GPI and TLR4 is confirmed by the reduction of anti-β2GPI antibody binding and by the up-regulation of E-selectin or ICAM-1 by TLR4 silencing in HUVEC. β2GPI binding is not affected by LPS at concentrations comparable to those found in both β2GPI and antibody preparations. Only higher amount of LPS that can activate EC and up-regulate TLR4 expression are found to increase the binding.Our findings demonstrate that β2GPI interacts directly with TLR4 expressed on EC, and that such interaction may contribute to β2GPI-dependent aPL-mediated EC activation. At variance of monocytic cells, we also showed a threshold effect for the action of LPS, that is able to enhance anti-β2GPI antibody EC binding only at cell activating concentrations, shown to increase TLR4 expression. This invitro model may explain why LPS behaves as a second hit increasing the expression of β2GPI in vascular tissues and triggering aPL-mediated thrombosis in experimental animals.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)42-50
Number of pages9
JournalJournal of Autoimmunity
Volume55
Issue number1
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2015

Keywords

  • Anti-β2-glycoprotein I antibodies
  • Endothelial cells
  • Innate immunity
  • LPS
  • Toll-like receptor 4
  • β2-Glycoprotein I

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Immunology
  • Immunology and Allergy
  • Medicine(all)

Fingerprint Dive into the research topics of 'β2-glycoprotein I, lipopolysaccharide and endothelial TLR4: Three players in the two hit theory for anti-phospholipid-mediated thrombosis'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

  • Cite this