177Lu-PRRT in advanced gastrointestinal neuroendocrine tumors: 10-year follow-up of the IRST phase II prospective study

Giovanni Paganelli, Maddalena Sansovini, Silvia Nicolini, Ilaria Grassi, Toni Ibrahim, Elena Amadori, Valentina Di Iorio, Manuela Monti, Emanuela Scarpi, Alberto Bongiovanni, Mattia Altini, Luca Urso, Corrado Cittanti, Federica Matteucci, Stefano Severi

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

PURPOSE: In March 2014, we reported the activity and safety of 177Lu-DOTA-octreotate peptide receptor radionuclide therapy (Lu-PRRT) at two different dosages (18.5 GBq and 27.5 GBq in 5 cycles) in patients with progressive metastatic gastrointestinal neuroendocrine tumors (GI-NETs). Disease control rate (DCR) and toxicity were addressed. Herein, we report the late toxicity, progression-free survival (PFS), and overall survival (OS) in the same cohort after a 10-year follow-up.

METHODS: We conducted an open-label, disease-oriented prospective phase II trial. From March 2008 to June 2011, 43 patients received 3.7 GBq or 5.5 GBq of Lu-PRRT every 6 to 8 weeks, each cycle repeated 5 times. All patients showed 68Gallium-DOTA-peptide PET/Octreoscan® positivity (score 3-4 Rotterdam scale) in known lesions. Tumor burden was estimated radiologically. Time-to-event data (PFS and OS) were described using Kaplan-Meier curves and compared with the log-rank test.

RESULTS: Forty-three patients (28 males and 15 females) were evaluable and were monitored for a median period of 118 months (range 12.6-139.6). Median PFS in patients receiving 18.5 GBq was 59.8 months (95% confidence interval [95% CI] 14.3-79.6), identical to that of patients treated with 27.5 GBq (59.8 months, 95% CI 23.4-82.0). Median OS was 71.0 months (95% CI 46.1-107.3) in the group who received 18.5 GBq and 97.6 months (95% CI 64.3-not reached) in the group treated with 27.5 GBq (P = 0.22). Patients with progression limited to lymph nodes showed significantly longer median PFS and OS than those with hepatic lesions (P = 0.02 for PFS and P = 0.04 for OS). Age over 65 years at the time of PRRT was also significant for OS. Of note, no late hematological or renal toxicity was observed in either group.

CONCLUSIONS: The long-term follow-up of the IRST phase II study shows that Lu-PRRT is a safe and effective therapy for patients with advanced GI-NET, the most important prognostic factor being tumor burden, hepatic lesions, and age. We believe that Lu-PRRT should be offered to patients with early-stage disease.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)152-160
Number of pages9
JournalEuropean Journal of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging
Volume48
Issue number1
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2021

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