Thyrotropin-secreting pituitary adenomas (TSH-omas) present with signs and symptoms of hyperthyroidism and they are characterized by elevated serum levels of free thyroid hormones with measurable TSH levels. TSH-omas are very infrequent, accounting for less than 1% of all pituitary adenomas, thus representing a very rare cause of hyperthyroidism. For this reason, data collected on these rare disorders are relatively few, but some new researches shed new light on the etiopathogenesis, the diagnosis and the treatment of such a remarkable disease. Since the same biochemical picture is present in the syndromes of thyroid hormone resistance (RTH), in particular in the form of pituitary RTH, failure in distinguishing these clinical entities may lead to improper patient management. Conversely, early diagnosis and correct treatment of TSH-omas may prevent the occurrence of neurological and endocrinological complications, thus leading to a better rate of cure. In the present short review article, the most relevant recent advances in the pathophysiology of TSH-omas are described.