A 2D video-analysis scoring system of 90° change of direction technique identifies football players with high knee abduction moment

Francesco Della Villa, Stefano Di Paolo, Dario Santagati, Edoardo Della Croce, Nicola Francesco Lopomo, Alberto Grassi, Stefano Zaffagnini

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


PURPOSE: Abnormal joint biomechanics and poor neuromuscular control are modifiable risk factors for Anterior Cruciate Ligament (ACL) injury. Although 3D motion capture is the gold standard for the biomechanical evaluation of high-speed multidirectional movements, 2D video analysis is a growing-interest alternative because of its higher cost-effectiveness and interpretability. The aim of the present study was to explore the possible association between a 2D evaluation of a 90° change of direction (COD) and the KAM measured with gold standard 3D motion analysis.

METHODS: Thirty-four competitive football (soccer) players (age 22.8 ± 4.1, 18 male and 16 females) were enrolled. Each athlete performed a series of pre-planned 90° COD at the maximum speed possible in a laboratory equipped with artificial turf. 3D motion analysis was recorded using 10 stereophotogrammetric cameras, a force platform, and three high-speed cameras. The 2D evaluation was performed through a scoring system based on the video analysis of frontal and sagittal plane joint kinematics. Five scoring criteria were adopted: limb stability (LS), pelvis stability (PS), trunk stability (TS), shock absorption (SA), and movement strategy (MS). For each criterion, a sub-score of 0/2 (non-adequate), 1/2 (partially adequate), or 2/2 (adequate) was attributed to the movement, based on objective measurements. The intra-rater and inter-rater reliability were calculated for each criterion and the total score. The Knee Abduction Moment (KAM) was extracted from the 3D motion analysis and grouped according to the results of the 2D evaluation.

RESULTS: Excellent intra-rater reliability (ICC > 0.88) and good-to-excellent inter-rater reliability (ICC 0.68-0.92) were found. Significantly higher KAM was found for athletes obtaining a 0/2 score compared to those obtaining a 2/2 score in all the sub-criteria and the total score (20-47% higher, p < 0.05). The total score and the LS score showed the best discriminative power between the three groups.

CONCLUSION: The 2D video-analysis scoring system here described was a simple and effective tool to discriminate athletes with high and low KAM in the assessment of a 90° COD and could be a potential method to identify athletes at high risk of non-contact ACL injury.


Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1-10
Number of pages10
JournalKnee Surgery, Sports Traumatology, Arthroscopy
Publication statusE-pub ahead of print - 2022


  • 2D video analysis
  • ACL
  • ACL injury prevention
  • Cut maneuver
  • Return to sport


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