A 3D-Printed Ultra-Low Young's Modulus β-Ti Alloy for Biomedical Applications

Massimo Pellizzari, Alireza Jam, Matilde Tschon, Milena Fini, Carlo Lora, Matteo Benedetti

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


The metastable β-Ti21S alloy is evaluated as a potential candidate for biomedical parts. Near fully dense (99.75 ± 0.02%) samples are additively manufactured (that is, 3D-printed) by laser powder-bed fusion (L-PBF). In the as-built condition, the material consists of metastable β-phase only, with columnar grains oriented along the building direction. The material exhibits an extremely low Young's modulus (52 ± 0.3 GPa), which was never reported for this type of alloy. The combination of good mechanical strength (σy0.2 = 709 ± 6 MPa, ultimate tensile strength (UTS) = 831 ± 3 MPa) and high total elongation during tensile test (21% ± 1.2%) in the as-built state, that is, without any heat treatment, is close to that of the wrought alloy and comparable to that of heat treated Ti grade 5. The good biocompatibility attested by cytotoxicity tests confirms its great suitability for biomedical applications.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1-16
Number of pages16
Issue number12
Publication statusPublished - Jun 20 2020


  • 3D-printing
  • orthopaedic biomaterials
  • bone prosthesis
  • β-Titanium alloy
  • Young’s modulus
  • cytotoxicity


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