A bioavailability study on microbeads and nanoliposomes fabricated by dense carbon dioxide technologies using human-primary monocytes and flow cytometry assay: International Journal of Pharmaceutics

E. Ciaglia, F. Montella, P. Trucillo, M.C. Ciardulli, P. Di Pietro, G. Amodio, P. Remondelli, C. Vecchione, E. Reverchon, N. Maffulli, A.A. Puca, G. Della Porta

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Supercritical Emulsion Extraction (SEE) and Supercritical assisted Liposome formation (SuperLip), use dense gases such as carbon dioxide (dCO2) to fabricate advanced micro/nanocarriers. SEE uses dCO2 to extract solvent from the oily phase of an emulsion and obtain biopolymer microbead; For this study, poly-Lactic Acid (PLA) microbeads of 1 ± 0.2 μm in mean size loaded at 1 µg/mgPLA with Rhodamine B (ROD) were prepared by SEE; the beads showed a solvent residue lower than 10 ppm and encapsulated the fluorochrome with an efficiency of 90%. SuperLip uses dCO2 to enhance lipid/ethanol/water mixing and to promote the ethanol extraction from liposome suspension. In this case, phosphatidyl-choline (PC) vesicles with a mean size of 0.2 ± 0.05 μm and loaded with Fluorescein Iso-ThioCyanate (FITC) at 8 µg/mgPC were prepared; small unilamellar structure was observed for all the vesicles with FITC encapsulation efficiency of 80%. Ethanol residue of 50 ppm was measured in all the liposome suspensions. The bioavailability of microbeads and nanoliposomes was assessed through incubation with human monocytes previously isolated from healthy donors’ blood. A specifically optimized protocol that allowed their quenching on the cell surface was developed to monitor by flow cytometer assay only the cell population that effectively internalized the carriers. When microbeads were tested, the percentage of alive internalizing monocytes was of about 30%. An internalization of 96.1 ± 21% was, instead, obtained at dosage of 0.1 mg/mL for nanoliposomes. In this last case, monocytes showed a vitality of almost 100% after vesicles internalization at all the concentrations studied; on the other hand, cell apoptosis progressively increased in a dose/response manner, after polymer microbeads phagocytosis. The proposed data suggested that dCO2 technologies can be reliably used to fabricate intracellular carriers. © 2019
Original languageEnglish
JournalInt. J. Pharm.
Publication statusPublished - 2019


  • Monocytes
  • Nanoliposomes
  • Phagocytosis
  • PLA microbeads
  • Supercritical fluid technologies
  • alcohol
  • carbon dioxide
  • fluorescein isothiocyanate
  • fluorochrome
  • nanocarrier
  • phosphatidylcholine
  • polylactic acid
  • rhodamine B
  • water oil cream
  • drug carrier
  • liposome
  • microsphere
  • nanoparticle
  • polyester
  • polyglycolic acid
  • polylactide
  • rhodamine
  • solvent
  • apoptosis
  • Article
  • cell isolation
  • cell population
  • cell surface
  • chemical structure
  • controlled study
  • drug bioavailability
  • emulsion
  • flow cytometry
  • human
  • human cell
  • internalization
  • monocyte
  • nanoencapsulation
  • nanofabrication
  • normal human
  • particle size
  • phagocytosis
  • photon correlation spectroscopy
  • priority journal
  • scanning electron microscopy
  • transmission electron microscopy
  • ultraviolet visible spectrophotometry
  • bioavailability
  • cell culture
  • chemistry
  • drug formulation
  • medicinal chemistry
  • metabolism
  • procedures
  • suspension
  • Biological Availability
  • Carbon Dioxide
  • Cells, Cultured
  • Chemistry, Pharmaceutical
  • Drug Carriers
  • Drug Compounding
  • Emulsions
  • Flow Cytometry
  • Humans
  • Liposomes
  • Microspheres
  • Nanoparticles
  • Particle Size
  • Polyesters
  • Polyglycolic Acid
  • Rhodamines
  • Solvents
  • Suspensions


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