Background: Few cases of primary retroperitoneal mucinous cystoadenoma, a rare benign tumor, have been reported in the literature so far. The pathogenesis of this tumour is not completely understood yet.Our case is particularly significant since the localization in the mesentery has been described only once before in the literature. Unless biologically benign, this tumour can cause relevant clinical symptoms related to the size and site (compression or obstruction of organs).Case presentation: We describe the case of a 52-years old woman who had presented with abdominal pain and underwent surgery in order to remove a palpable lump in the mesentery with histological diagnosis of primary mucinous cystoadenoma. The patient was followed-up for two years with no evidence of recurrence.Conclusions: Mucinous cystoadenoma is more frequent in women, particularly when there is history of one or more pregnancies. A complete preoperative study with abdominal and pelvic tomographic images and an accurate physical examination are essentials for the management of the patient. Surgical resection is the only way to treat mucinous cystoadenomas, and to have the histological confirmation that the removed mass is a benign tumor.
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