A Case Series and Literature Review of Isavuconazole Use in Pediatric Patients with Hemato-oncologic Diseases and Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation

N Decembrino, K Perruccio, M Zecca, A Colombini, E Calore, P Muggeo, E Soncini, A Comelli, M Molinaro, B M Goffredo, S De Gregori, I Giardini, L Scudeller, S Cesaro

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We analyzed the use of isavuconazole (ISA) as treatment or prophylaxis for invasive fungal disease (IFD) in children with hemato-oncologic diseases. A multicentric retrospective analysis was performed among centers belonging to the Italian Association for Pediatric Hematology and Oncology (AIEOP). Pharmacokinetic (PK) monitoring was applied by a high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (HLPC-MS/MS) assay. Twenty-nine patients were studied: 10 during chemotherapy and 19 after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). The patients consisted of 20 males and 9 females with a median age of 14.5 years (age range, 3 to 18 years) and a median body weight of 47 kg (body weight range, 15 to 80 kg). ISA was used as prophylaxis in 5 patients and as treatment in 24 cases (20 after therapeutic failure, 4 as first-line therapy). According to European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) criteria, we registered 5 patients with proven IFD, 9 patients with probable IFD, and 10 patients with possible IFD. Patients with a body weight of <30 kg received half the ISA dose; the others received ISA on the adult schedule (a 200-mg loading dose every 8 h on days 1 and 2 and a 200-mg/day maintenance dose); for all but 10 patients, the route of administration switched from the intravenous route to the oral route during treatment. ISA was administered for a median of 75.5 days (range, 6 to 523 days). The overall response rate was 70.8%; 12 patients with IFD achieved complete remission, 5 achieved partial remission, 5 achieved progression, and 3 achieved stable IFD. No breakthrough infections were registered. PK monitoring of 17 patients revealed a median ISA steady-state trough concentration of 4.91 mg/liter (range, 2.15 to 8.54 mg/liter) and a concentration/dose (in kilograms) ratio of 1.13 (range, 0.47 to 3.42). Determination of the 12-h PK profile was performed in 6 cases. The median area under the concentration-time curve from 0 to 12 h was 153.16 mg·h/liter (range, 86.31 to 169.45 mg·h/liter). Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events grade 1 to 3 toxicity (increased transaminase and/or creatinine levels) was observed in 6 patients, with no drug-drug interactions being seen in patients receiving immunosuppressants. Isavuconazole may be useful and safe in children with hemato-oncologic diseases, even in the HSCT setting. Prospective studies are warranted.

Original languageEnglish
JournalAntimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
Issue number3
Publication statusE-pub ahead of print - 2019


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