A comparative study of the toxicity of mercury dichloride and methylmercury, assayed by the Frog Embryo Teratogenesis Assay-Xenopus (FETAX)

Mariangela Prati, Rosalba Gornati, Patrizia Boracchi, Elia Biganzoli, Salvador Fortaner, Romano Pietra, Enrico Sabbioni, Giovanni Bernardini

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

The Frog Embryo Teratogenesis Assay-Xenopus (FETAX) is a powerful and flexible bioassay that makes use of the embryos of the anuran amphibian Xenopus laevis. The FETAX can detect xenobiotics that affect embryonic development, when mortality, teratogenicity and growth inhibition are used as end points. The FETAX was used to compare the embryotoxic and teratogenic potentials of two chemical species of mercury: inorganic mercury(II) chloride (HgCl2) and organic methylmercury chloride (MeHgCl). MeHgCl, with an estimated median lethal concentration [LC50] of 0.313uμM and a median teratogenic concentration [TC50] of 0.236uμM, showed a higher toxicity than HgCl2, with estimated LC50 and TC50 values of 0.601 μM and 0.513μM, respectively. On the basis of these results, HgCl2 and MeHgCl can be classified as "slightly teratogenic compounds", as the ratio of LC50/TC50 is less than 1.5. There was a significant deviation from the commonly described monotonic behaviour of the concentration-response curves, suggesting a hormetic effect of both species of mercury. Uptake experiments, followed by neutron activation analysis, showed a higher incorporation of mercury in embryos exposed to MeHgCl compared with those exposed to HgCl2. Interestingly, Hg-exposed embryos showed a higher content of selenium and zinc than did control embryos.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)23-32
Number of pages10
JournalATLA Alternatives to Laboratory Animals
Volume30
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - 2002

Keywords

  • Arsenic
  • FETAX
  • Hormesis
  • Mercury
  • Neutron activation analysis
  • Selenium
  • Zinc

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology(all)
  • veterinary(all)

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