A controlled trial of recombinant human granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor after total body irradiation, high-dose chemotherapy, and autologous bone marrow transplantation for acute lymphoblastic leukemia or malignant lymphoma

Hartmut Link, Marc A. Boogaerts, Angelo M. Carella, Augustin Ferrant, Helmut Gadner, Norbert C. Gorin, Ihor Harabacz, Jean Luc Harousseau, Patrique Hervé, Johanna Holldack, Hans Jochem Kolb, Otto Krieger, Boris Labar, Werner Linkesch, Franco Mandelli, Dominique Maraninchi, Elizabeth Naparstek, Uwe Nicolay, Dietger Niederwieser, Josy ReiffersVittorio Rizzoli, Wolfgang Siegert, Jean Paul Vernant, Theo De Witte

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

Infections during granulocytopenia are major complications of autologous bone marrow transplantation (ABMT). Since recombinant human granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (rhuGM-CSF) has proved to accelerate bone marrow recovery after cytostatic chemotherapy, we studied its effects on hematopoietic regeneration and on infectious complications after total body irradiation (TBI) and high-dose chemotherapy followed by ABMT. Eighty-one patients with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) in complete remission (CR) or with non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) in CR or partial remission were randomized in a double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. They received either rhuGM-CSF 250 μg/m2 (Escherichia coli-derived) daily by continuous infusion after ABMT, or placebo. Treatment was continued until the neutrophil counts reached greater than 500/μL for 1 week. The maximum treatment duration was 30 days. Thirty-nine patients in the rhuGM-CSF group and 40 patients in the placebo group were evaluable. The median time needed to reach a neutrophil count of 500/μL was 15 days with rhuGM-CSF and 28 days with placebo (P= .0001). Bacterial infections occurred in 14 (35.9%) of the patients with rhuGM-CSF and in 25 (62.5%) of the patients given the placebo (P = .024). Nine of the 14 bacterial infections in the rhuGM-CSF group and 20 of the 25 infections in the placebo group were diagnosed within the first 10 days after ABMT. Capillary leakage and a reversible fluid retention were seen in five of the rhuGM-CSF-treated patients. Patients treated with rhuGM-CSF had lower serum protein and albumin levels than patients in the placebo group. There was no statistically relevant difference in overall survival between the two groups (P = .47). Relapse occurred in 14 (34%) patients with rhuGM-CSF and in 18 (45%) patients with placebo. We conclude that continuous infusion of rhuGM-CSF after ABMT accelerates the regeneration of granulocytes and reduces the number of bacterial infections.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)2188-2195
Number of pages8
JournalBlood
Volume80
Issue number9
Publication statusPublished - Nov 1 1992

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Hematology

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