A flattening oxygen consumption trajectory phenotypes disease severity and poor prognosis in patients with heart failure with reduced, mid-range, and preserved ejection fraction

Dejana Popovic, Ross Arena, Marco Guazzi

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

2 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Background: In heart failure (HF), a flattening oxygen consumption (VO2) trajectory during cardiopulmonary exercise test (CPET) reflects an acutely compromised cardiac output. We hypothesized that a flattening VO2 trajectory is helpful in phenotyping disease severity and prognosis in HF with either reduced (HFrEF), mid-range (HFmrEF), or preserved (HFpEF) ejection fraction. Methods and results: Overall, 319 HF patients (198 HFrEF, 80 HFmrEF, and 41 HFpEF) underwent CPET. A flattening VO2 trajectory was tracked and defined as an inflection of VO2 linearity as a function of work rate with a second slope downward inflection >35% extent of the first one. Peak VO2, the minute ventilation/carbon dioxide production (VE/VCO2) slope, and the presence of exercise oscillatory ventilation (EOV) were also determined. Pulmonary artery systolic pressure (PASP) and tricuspid annular plane systolic excursion (TAPSE) were measured by echocardiography. A flattening VO2 occurred in 92 patients (28.8%). PASP and TAPSE at rest were significantly higher and lower (P < 0.001), respectively. The primary outcome was the combination of all-cause death, heart transplantation and left ventricular assist device implantation. The secondary outcome was the primary outcome plus hospitalization for cardiac reasons. In the multivariate model including peak VO2, VE/VCO2 slope, EOV and VO2 trajectory, a flattening VO2 trajectory and EOV were retained in the regression for primary (X2 = 35.78, and 36.36, respectively; P < 0.001) and secondary (X2 = 12.45 and 47.91, respectively; P < 0.001) outcomes. Conclusions: Results point to a flattening VO2 trajectory as a likely new and strong predictor of events in HF with any ejection fraction. Given the relation of right-sided cardiac dysfunction to pulmonary hypertension, this oxygen pattern might suggest a real-time decrease in pulmonary blood flow to the left heart.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1115-1124
Number of pages10
JournalEuropean Journal of Heart Failure
Volume20
Issue number7
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Jul 1 2018

Fingerprint

Oxygen Consumption
Ventilation
Heart Failure
Phenotype
Exercise
Exercise Test
Pulmonary Artery
Blood Pressure
Heart-Assist Devices
Heart Transplantation
Pulmonary Hypertension
Carbon Dioxide
Cardiac Output
Echocardiography
Cause of Death
Hospitalization
Oxygen
Lung

Keywords

  • Heart failure with mid-range ejection fraction
  • Heart failure with preserved ejection fraction
  • Heart failure with reduced ejection fraction
  • VO flattening

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine

Cite this

@article{a804f0557acd4a0a90fd250e18109682,
title = "A flattening oxygen consumption trajectory phenotypes disease severity and poor prognosis in patients with heart failure with reduced, mid-range, and preserved ejection fraction",
abstract = "Background: In heart failure (HF), a flattening oxygen consumption (VO2) trajectory during cardiopulmonary exercise test (CPET) reflects an acutely compromised cardiac output. We hypothesized that a flattening VO2 trajectory is helpful in phenotyping disease severity and prognosis in HF with either reduced (HFrEF), mid-range (HFmrEF), or preserved (HFpEF) ejection fraction. Methods and results: Overall, 319 HF patients (198 HFrEF, 80 HFmrEF, and 41 HFpEF) underwent CPET. A flattening VO2 trajectory was tracked and defined as an inflection of VO2 linearity as a function of work rate with a second slope downward inflection >35{\%} extent of the first one. Peak VO2, the minute ventilation/carbon dioxide production (VE/VCO2) slope, and the presence of exercise oscillatory ventilation (EOV) were also determined. Pulmonary artery systolic pressure (PASP) and tricuspid annular plane systolic excursion (TAPSE) were measured by echocardiography. A flattening VO2 occurred in 92 patients (28.8{\%}). PASP and TAPSE at rest were significantly higher and lower (P < 0.001), respectively. The primary outcome was the combination of all-cause death, heart transplantation and left ventricular assist device implantation. The secondary outcome was the primary outcome plus hospitalization for cardiac reasons. In the multivariate model including peak VO2, VE/VCO2 slope, EOV and VO2 trajectory, a flattening VO2 trajectory and EOV were retained in the regression for primary (X2 = 35.78, and 36.36, respectively; P < 0.001) and secondary (X2 = 12.45 and 47.91, respectively; P < 0.001) outcomes. Conclusions: Results point to a flattening VO2 trajectory as a likely new and strong predictor of events in HF with any ejection fraction. Given the relation of right-sided cardiac dysfunction to pulmonary hypertension, this oxygen pattern might suggest a real-time decrease in pulmonary blood flow to the left heart.",
keywords = "Heart failure with mid-range ejection fraction, Heart failure with preserved ejection fraction, Heart failure with reduced ejection fraction, VO flattening",
author = "Dejana Popovic and Ross Arena and Marco Guazzi",
year = "2018",
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doi = "10.1002/ejhf.1140",
language = "English",
volume = "20",
pages = "1115--1124",
journal = "European Journal of Heart Failure",
issn = "1388-9842",
publisher = "John Wiley & Sons, Ltd",
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TY - JOUR

T1 - A flattening oxygen consumption trajectory phenotypes disease severity and poor prognosis in patients with heart failure with reduced, mid-range, and preserved ejection fraction

AU - Popovic, Dejana

AU - Arena, Ross

AU - Guazzi, Marco

PY - 2018/7/1

Y1 - 2018/7/1

N2 - Background: In heart failure (HF), a flattening oxygen consumption (VO2) trajectory during cardiopulmonary exercise test (CPET) reflects an acutely compromised cardiac output. We hypothesized that a flattening VO2 trajectory is helpful in phenotyping disease severity and prognosis in HF with either reduced (HFrEF), mid-range (HFmrEF), or preserved (HFpEF) ejection fraction. Methods and results: Overall, 319 HF patients (198 HFrEF, 80 HFmrEF, and 41 HFpEF) underwent CPET. A flattening VO2 trajectory was tracked and defined as an inflection of VO2 linearity as a function of work rate with a second slope downward inflection >35% extent of the first one. Peak VO2, the minute ventilation/carbon dioxide production (VE/VCO2) slope, and the presence of exercise oscillatory ventilation (EOV) were also determined. Pulmonary artery systolic pressure (PASP) and tricuspid annular plane systolic excursion (TAPSE) were measured by echocardiography. A flattening VO2 occurred in 92 patients (28.8%). PASP and TAPSE at rest were significantly higher and lower (P < 0.001), respectively. The primary outcome was the combination of all-cause death, heart transplantation and left ventricular assist device implantation. The secondary outcome was the primary outcome plus hospitalization for cardiac reasons. In the multivariate model including peak VO2, VE/VCO2 slope, EOV and VO2 trajectory, a flattening VO2 trajectory and EOV were retained in the regression for primary (X2 = 35.78, and 36.36, respectively; P < 0.001) and secondary (X2 = 12.45 and 47.91, respectively; P < 0.001) outcomes. Conclusions: Results point to a flattening VO2 trajectory as a likely new and strong predictor of events in HF with any ejection fraction. Given the relation of right-sided cardiac dysfunction to pulmonary hypertension, this oxygen pattern might suggest a real-time decrease in pulmonary blood flow to the left heart.

AB - Background: In heart failure (HF), a flattening oxygen consumption (VO2) trajectory during cardiopulmonary exercise test (CPET) reflects an acutely compromised cardiac output. We hypothesized that a flattening VO2 trajectory is helpful in phenotyping disease severity and prognosis in HF with either reduced (HFrEF), mid-range (HFmrEF), or preserved (HFpEF) ejection fraction. Methods and results: Overall, 319 HF patients (198 HFrEF, 80 HFmrEF, and 41 HFpEF) underwent CPET. A flattening VO2 trajectory was tracked and defined as an inflection of VO2 linearity as a function of work rate with a second slope downward inflection >35% extent of the first one. Peak VO2, the minute ventilation/carbon dioxide production (VE/VCO2) slope, and the presence of exercise oscillatory ventilation (EOV) were also determined. Pulmonary artery systolic pressure (PASP) and tricuspid annular plane systolic excursion (TAPSE) were measured by echocardiography. A flattening VO2 occurred in 92 patients (28.8%). PASP and TAPSE at rest were significantly higher and lower (P < 0.001), respectively. The primary outcome was the combination of all-cause death, heart transplantation and left ventricular assist device implantation. The secondary outcome was the primary outcome plus hospitalization for cardiac reasons. In the multivariate model including peak VO2, VE/VCO2 slope, EOV and VO2 trajectory, a flattening VO2 trajectory and EOV were retained in the regression for primary (X2 = 35.78, and 36.36, respectively; P < 0.001) and secondary (X2 = 12.45 and 47.91, respectively; P < 0.001) outcomes. Conclusions: Results point to a flattening VO2 trajectory as a likely new and strong predictor of events in HF with any ejection fraction. Given the relation of right-sided cardiac dysfunction to pulmonary hypertension, this oxygen pattern might suggest a real-time decrease in pulmonary blood flow to the left heart.

KW - Heart failure with mid-range ejection fraction

KW - Heart failure with preserved ejection fraction

KW - Heart failure with reduced ejection fraction

KW - VO flattening

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