A follow-up of the multicenter collaborative study on HIV-1 drug resistance and tropism testing using 454 ultra deep pyrosequencing

Elizabeth P. St. John, Birgitte B. Simen, Gregory S. Turenchalk, Michael S. Braverman, Isabella Abbate, Jeroen Aerssens, Olivier Bouchez, Christian Gabriel, Jacques Izopet, Karolin Meixenberger, Francesca Di Giallonardo, Ralph Schlapbach, Roger Paredes, James Sakwa, Gudrun G. Schmitz-Agheguian, Alexander Thielen, Martin Victor, Karin J. Metzner, Martin P. Däumer, M. DanzerS. Stabentheiner, J. Pröll, K. Hofer, J. Aerssens, W. Mostmans, K. Thys, H. Van Marck, J. Izopet, M. Dubois, F. Nicot, D. Milan, B. Thiele, C. Kuecherer, A. Nitsche, A. Radonic, P. W. Dabrowski, T. Lengauer, M. R. Capobianchi, A. Bruselles, E. Giombini, G. Rozera, B. Bartolini, F. M. Codoñer, C. Pou, H. F. Günthard, W. L. Yang, C. Aquino, R. Bruggmann, M. Künzli-Gontarczyk, D. Stephens, M. Makgamathe, G. Khan, M. Gordon, E. Moreno

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Background. Ultra deep sequencing is of increasing use not only in research but also in diagnostics. For implementation of ultra deep sequencing assays in clinical laboratories for routine diagnostics, intra- and inter-laboratory testing are of the utmost importance. Methods. A multicenter study was conducted to validate an updated assay design for 454 Life Sciences' GS FLX Titanium system targeting protease/reverse transcriptase (RTP) and env (V3) regions to identify HIV-1 drug-resistance mutations and determine co-receptor use with high sensitivity. The study included 30 HIV-1 subtype B and 6 subtype non-B samples with viral titers (VT) of 3,940-447,400 copies/mL, two dilution series (52,129-1,340 and 25,130-734 copies/mL), and triplicate samples. Amplicons spanning PR codons 10-99, RT codons 1-251 and the entire V3 region were generated using barcoded primers. Analysis was performed using the GS Amplicon Variant Analyzer and geno2pheno for tropism. For comparison, population sequencing was performed using the ViroSeq HIV-1 genotyping system. Results The median sequencing depth across the 11 sites was 1,829 reads per position for RTP (IQR 592-3,488) and 2,410 for V3 (IQR 786-3,695). 10 preselected drug resistant variants were measured across sites and showed high inter-laboratory correlation across all sites with data (P20% were missed, variants 2-10% were detected at most sites (even at low VT), and variants 1-2% were detected by some sites. All mutations detected by population sequencing were also detected by UDS. Conclusions This assay design results in an accurate and reproducible approach to analyze HIV-1 mutant spectra, even at variant frequencies well below those routinely detectable by population sequencing.

Original languageEnglish
Article numbere0146687
JournalPLoS One
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - Jan 12 2016

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Agricultural and Biological Sciences(all)
  • Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology(all)
  • Medicine(all)


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