A khorasan wheat-based replacement diet improves risk profile of patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM): a randomized crossover trial

Anne Whittaker, Monica Dinu, Francesca Cesari, Anna Maria Gori, Claudia Fiorillo, Matteo Becatti, Alessandro Casini, Rossella Marcucci, Stefano Benedettelli, Francesco Sofi

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

Purposes: The aim of the present study was to examine whether a replacement diet with products made with organic ancient khorasan wheat could provide additive protective effects in reducing glucose, insulin, lipid and inflammatory risk factors, and in restoring blood redox balance in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) patients compared to diet with product made with modern organic wheat. Methods: We conducted a randomized, double-blinded crossover trial with two intervention phases on 21 T2DM patients (14 females, 7 males). The participants were assigned to consume products (bread, pasta, crackers and biscuits) made using semi-whole flour from organic wheat that was either from ancient khorasan wheat or modern control wheat for 8 weeks in a random order. An 8-week washout period was implemented between the interventions. Laboratory analyses were performed both at the beginning and at the end of each intervention phase. Results: The metabolic risk profile improved only after the khorasan intervention period, as measured by a reduction in total and LDL cholesterol (mean reduction: −3.7 and −3.4 %, respectively), insulin (−16.3 %) and blood glucose (−9.1 %). Similarly, there was a significant reduction in circulating levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and interleukin-1ra, and a significant increase of total antioxidant capacity (+6.3 %). No significant differences from baseline were noted after the modern control wheat intervention phase. The change (from pre- to post-intervention) between the two intervention arms was significantly different (p <0.05) for total and LDL-c, insulin and HOMA index. Conclusions: A replacement diet with ancient khorasan wheat consumption provided additive protection in reducing total and LDL cholesterol, insulin, blood glucose, ROS production, and some inflammatory risk factors, which are all key factors warranting of control in secondary prevention of T2DM compared to a diet with products made with modern wheat.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1-10
Number of pages10
JournalEuropean Journal of Nutrition
DOIs
Publication statusE-pub ahead of print - Feb 8 2016

Keywords

  • Ancient wheat
  • Glycaemia
  • Inflammation cytokines
  • Khorasan wheat
  • Modern wheat
  • Organic wheat
  • Oxidative stress
  • Secondary prevention
  • Type 2 diabetes mellitus

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Medicine (miscellaneous)
  • Nutrition and Dietetics

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