A latent structure analysis of Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, Narcissistic Personality Disorder criteria

Andrea Fossati, Theodore P. Beauchaine, Federica Grazioli, Ilaria Carretta, Francesca Cortinovis, Cesare Maffei

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

The aim of this study was to examine the latent structure of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition (DSM-IV), Narcissistic Personality Disorder (NPD) criteria in a group of 641 outpatients. The consecutively admitted outpatients were administered the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis II Personality Disorders, Version 2.0, and the Personality Questionnaire. Both confirmatory and exploratory factor analyses (CFA and EFA, respectively) were used to evaluate whether the NPD criteria measure a single latent trait. Latent class analysis was used to assess the diagnostic accuracy of the individual DSM-IV NPD criteria. Mean above minus below a cut (MAMBAC) and maximum covariance (MAXCOV) taxometric analyses were used to evaluate whether the latent distribution of the DSM-IV NPD features is actually discrete. Both CFA and EFA results showed that the 9 DSM-IV NPD criteria loaded on 2 correlated factors. The latent class analysis results suggested a 3-class solution for NPD criteria; relevant differences in diagnostic efficiency were observed among the NPD criteria. MAMBAC and MAXCOV analyses provided consistent evidence of taxonic (ie, discrete) latent structure for NPD. This study gave only partial support to the validity of the DSM-IV NPD construct. Taxometric analyses indicated that a typological model is appropriate for describing NPD, but CFA and EFA suggested the existence of 2 distinct-albeit correlated-clusters of narcissistic features. As a whole, the DSM-IV criteria discriminated NPD from other personality disorders, but diagnostic accuracy statistics did not replicate the rank order of diagnostic efficiency of NPD criteria proposed by the DSM-IV.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)361-367
Number of pages7
JournalComprehensive Psychiatry
Volume46
Issue number5
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Sep 2005

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Psychiatry and Mental health
  • Biological Psychiatry
  • Psychology(all)

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