There are no widely accepted prognostic indices for extranodal marginal zone lymphoma of mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT). This study aimed to develop and validate a specific prognostic tool to personalize and optimize treatment of patients with MALT lymphoma. A prognostic index was built by Cox regression (stepwise selection) using data from 401 patients enrolled in the international randomized International Extranodal Lymphoma Study Group 19 (IELSG-19) trial (NCT 00210353). A validation set, including 633 patients, was obtained by merging 3 independent cohorts of MALT lymphoma patients. The 3 individual features maintaining the greatest prognostic significance for event-free survival (EFS, the main endpoint of the IELSG-19 trial) were age ‡70 years (hazard ratio [HR], 1.72; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.26-2.33), Ann Arbor stage III or IV (HR, 1.79; 95% CI,1.35-2.38), and an elevated lactate dehydrogenase level (HR, 1.87; 95% CI, 1.27-2.77). The prognostic index (MALT-IPI) constructed using these 3 parameters identified 3 groups: low, intermediate, and high risk (corresponding to the presence of 0, 1, or ‡2 of these factors, respectively). The 5-year EFS rates in the low-, intermediate-, and high-risk groups were 70%, 56%, and 29%, respectively. The MALT-lymphoma International Prognostic Index (MALT-IPI) also significantly discriminated between patients with different progression-free, overall, and cause-specific survival. The prognostic utility was retained in gastric and nongastric lymphomas, in each treatment arm (chlorambucil, rituximab, and rituximab plus chlorambucil), and was confirmed in the validation set. The new index, MALT-IPI, is a simple, accessible, and effective tool to identify MALT lymphoma patients at risk of poor outcomes. It may help define appropriate treatment approaches for individual patients.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Cell Biology