We examined the structural requirements for cell surface expression, signaling, and human immunodeficiency virus co-receptor activity for the chemokine receptor, CCR5. Serial C-terminal truncation of CCR5 resulted in progressive loss of cell surface expression; mutants truncated at the 317th position and shorter were not detected at the cell surface. Alanine substitution of basic residues in the membrane-proximal domain (residues 314-322) in the context of a full-length C-tail resulted in severe reduction in surface expression. C-terminal truncation that excised the three cysteines in this domain reduced surface expression, but further truncation of upstream basic residue(s) abolished surface expression. Substituting the carboxyl-terminal domain of CXCR4 for that of CCR5 failed to rectify the trafficking defect of the tailless CCR5. In contrast, tailless CXCR4 or a CXCR4 chimera that exchanged the native cytoplasmic domain for that of wild type CCR5 was expressed at the cell surface. Deletion mutants that expressed at the cell surface responded to chemokine stimulation and mediated human immunodeficiency virus entry. Substitution of all serine and threonine residues in the C-terminal tail of CCR5 abolished chemokine-mediated receptor phosphorylation but preserved downstream signaling (Ca2+ flux), while substitutions of tyrosine residues in the C-tail affected neither phenotype. CCR5 mutants that failed to traffic to the plasma membrane did not exhibit obvious changes in metabolic turnover and were retained in the Golgi or pre-Golgi compartments(s). Thus, the basic domain (-KHIAKRF-) and the cysteine cluster (-CKCC-) in the C-terminal tail of CCR5 function cooperatively for optimal surface expression.
ASJC Scopus subject areas