A multicenter case-control study of diet and lung cancer among non-smokers

Paul Brennan, Cristina Fortes, Joel Butler, Antonio Agudo, Simone Benhamou, Sarah Darby, Michael Gerken, Karl Heinz Jöckel, Michaela Kreuzer, Sandra Mallone, Fredrik Nyberg, Hermann Pohlabeln, Gilles Ferro, Paolo Boffetta

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Abstract

Objective: We have examined the role of dietary patterns and specific dietary nutrients in the etiology of lung cancer among non-smokers using a multicenter case-control study. Methods: 506 non-smoking incident lung cancer cases were identified in the eight centers along with 1045 non-smoking controls. Dietary habits were assessed using a quantitative food-frequency questionnaire administered by personal interview. Based on this information, measures of total carotenoids, beta-carotene and retinol nutrient intake were estimated. Results: Protective effects against lung cancer were observed for high consumption of tomatoes, (odds ratio (OR) = 0.5; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.4-0.6), lettuce (OR = 0.6; 95% CI 0.3-1.2), carrots (OR = 0.8; 95% CI 0.5-1.1), margarine (OR = 0.7; 95% CI 0.5-0.8) and cheese (OR = 0.7; 95% CI 0.5-1.0). Only weak protective effects were observed for high consumption of all carotenoids (OR = 0.8; 95% CI 0.6-1.0), beta-carotene (OR = 0.8; 95% CI 0.6-1.1) and retinol (OR = 0.9; 95% CI 0.7-1.1). Protective effects for high levels of fruit consumption were restricted to squamous cell carcinoma (OR = 0.7; 95% CI 0.4-1.2) and small cell carcinoma (OR = 0.7; 95% CI 0.4-1.2), and were not apparent for adenocarcinoma (OR = 0.9; 95% CI 0.6-1.3). Similarly, any excess risk associated with meat, butter and egg consumption was restricted to squamous and small cell carcinomas, but was not detected for adenocarcinomas. Conclusions: This evidence suggests that the public health significance of increasing vegetable consumption among the bottom third of the population would include a reduction in the incidence of lung cancer among lifetime non-smokers by at least 25%, and possibly more. A similar protective effect for increased fruit consumption may be present for squamous cell and small cell lung carcinomas.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)49-58
Number of pages10
JournalCancer Causes and Control
Volume11
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - 2000

Keywords

  • Diet
  • Lung cancer
  • Non-smokers

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Cancer Research
  • Epidemiology
  • Oncology

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    Brennan, P., Fortes, C., Butler, J., Agudo, A., Benhamou, S., Darby, S., Gerken, M., Jöckel, K. H., Kreuzer, M., Mallone, S., Nyberg, F., Pohlabeln, H., Ferro, G., & Boffetta, P. (2000). A multicenter case-control study of diet and lung cancer among non-smokers. Cancer Causes and Control, 11(1), 49-58.