A normative study of the Italian printed word version of the free and cued selective reminding test

N. Girtler, F. De Carli, M. Amore, D. Arnaldi, L. E. Bosia, C. Bruzzaniti, S. F. Cappa, L. Cocito, G. Colazzo, L. Ghio, E. Magi, G. L. Mancardi, F. Nobili, M. Pardini, A. Picco, R. Rissotto, C. Serrati, A. Brugnolo

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


According to the new research criteria for the diagnosis of Alzheimer’s disease, episodic memory impairment, not significantly improved by cueing, is the core neuropsychological marker, even at a pre-dementia stage. The FCSRT assesses verbal learning and memory using semantic cues and is widely used in Europe. Standardization values for the Italian population are available for the colored picture version, but not for the 16-item printed word version. In this study, we present age- and education-adjusted normative data for FCSRT-16 obtained using linear regression techniques and generalized linear model, and critical values for classifying sub-test performance into equivalent scores. Six scores were derived from the performance of 194 normal subjects (MMSE score, range 27–30, mean 29.5 ± 0.5) divided per decade (from 20 to 90), per gender and per level of education (4 levels: 3–5, 6–8, 9–13, >13 years): immediate free recall (IFR), immediate total recall (ITR), recognition phase (RP), delayed free recall (DFR), delayed total recall (DTR), Index of Sensitivity of Cueing (ISC), number of intrusions. This study confirms the effect of age and education, but not of gender on immediate and delayed free and cued recall. The Italian version of the FCSRT-16 can be useful for both clinical and research purposes.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1127-1134
Number of pages8
JournalNeurological Sciences
Issue number7
Publication statusPublished - May 8 2015


  • Alzheimer’s disease
  • Italian normative
  • Memory test
  • Semantic cues

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Clinical Neurology
  • Psychiatry and Mental health
  • Dermatology


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