A novel headspace solid-phase microextraction method using in situ derivatization and a diethoxydiphenylsilane fibre for the gas chromatography-mass spectrometry determination of urinary hydroxy polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons

M. Mattarozzi, M. Musci, M. Careri, A. Mangia, S. Fustinoni, L. Campo, F. Bianchi

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17 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

An innovative and simple headspace solid-phase microextraction method using a novel diethoxydiphenylsilane fibre based on in situ derivatization with acetic anhydride was optimized and validated for the gas chromatography-mass spectrometry determination of some monohydroxy metabolites of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, namely 1-hydroxynaphthalene, 2-hydroxynaphtalene, 9-hydroxyfluorene, 2-hydroxyfluorene and 1-hydroxypyrene at trace levels in human urine. Enzymatic hydrolysis was applied before derivatization, whereas extraction conditions, i.e. the effects of time and temperature of extraction and salt addition were investigated by experimental design. Regression models and desirability functions were applied to find the experimental conditions providing the highest global extraction response. These conditions were found in correspondence of an extraction temperature of 90 °C, an extraction time of 90 min and 25% NaCl added to urine samples. The capabilities of the developed method were proved obtaining limit of quantitations in the 0.1-2 μg/l range, thus allowing the bio-monitoring of these compounds in human urine. A good precision was observed both in terms of intra-batch and inter-batch repeatability with RSD always lower than 14%. Recoveries ranging from 98(±3) to 121(±1)% and extraction yields higher than 72% were also obtained. Finally, the analysis of urine specimens of coke-oven workers revealed analytes' concentrations in the 2.2-164 μg/l range, proving the exposure to PAHs of the involved workers.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)5634-5639
Number of pages6
JournalJournal of Chromatography A
Volume1216
Issue number30
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Jul 24 2009

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Solid Phase Microextraction
Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons
Gas chromatography
Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry
Mass spectrometry
Urine
Fibers
Coke
Temperature
Environmental Monitoring
Coke ovens
Hydrolysis
Enzymatic hydrolysis
Research Design
Salts
Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons
Metabolites
Design of experiments
Recovery
Monitoring

Keywords

  • Derivatization
  • Experimental design
  • Hydroxy polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons
  • Solid-phase microextraction
  • Urine

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Analytical Chemistry
  • Organic Chemistry
  • Biochemistry

Cite this

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title = "A novel headspace solid-phase microextraction method using in situ derivatization and a diethoxydiphenylsilane fibre for the gas chromatography-mass spectrometry determination of urinary hydroxy polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons",
abstract = "An innovative and simple headspace solid-phase microextraction method using a novel diethoxydiphenylsilane fibre based on in situ derivatization with acetic anhydride was optimized and validated for the gas chromatography-mass spectrometry determination of some monohydroxy metabolites of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, namely 1-hydroxynaphthalene, 2-hydroxynaphtalene, 9-hydroxyfluorene, 2-hydroxyfluorene and 1-hydroxypyrene at trace levels in human urine. Enzymatic hydrolysis was applied before derivatization, whereas extraction conditions, i.e. the effects of time and temperature of extraction and salt addition were investigated by experimental design. Regression models and desirability functions were applied to find the experimental conditions providing the highest global extraction response. These conditions were found in correspondence of an extraction temperature of 90 °C, an extraction time of 90 min and 25{\%} NaCl added to urine samples. The capabilities of the developed method were proved obtaining limit of quantitations in the 0.1-2 μg/l range, thus allowing the bio-monitoring of these compounds in human urine. A good precision was observed both in terms of intra-batch and inter-batch repeatability with RSD always lower than 14{\%}. Recoveries ranging from 98(±3) to 121(±1){\%} and extraction yields higher than 72{\%} were also obtained. Finally, the analysis of urine specimens of coke-oven workers revealed analytes' concentrations in the 2.2-164 μg/l range, proving the exposure to PAHs of the involved workers.",
keywords = "Derivatization, Experimental design, Hydroxy polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, Solid-phase microextraction, Urine",
author = "M. Mattarozzi and M. Musci and M. Careri and A. Mangia and S. Fustinoni and L. Campo and F. Bianchi",
year = "2009",
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T1 - A novel headspace solid-phase microextraction method using in situ derivatization and a diethoxydiphenylsilane fibre for the gas chromatography-mass spectrometry determination of urinary hydroxy polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons

AU - Mattarozzi, M.

AU - Musci, M.

AU - Careri, M.

AU - Mangia, A.

AU - Fustinoni, S.

AU - Campo, L.

AU - Bianchi, F.

PY - 2009/7/24

Y1 - 2009/7/24

N2 - An innovative and simple headspace solid-phase microextraction method using a novel diethoxydiphenylsilane fibre based on in situ derivatization with acetic anhydride was optimized and validated for the gas chromatography-mass spectrometry determination of some monohydroxy metabolites of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, namely 1-hydroxynaphthalene, 2-hydroxynaphtalene, 9-hydroxyfluorene, 2-hydroxyfluorene and 1-hydroxypyrene at trace levels in human urine. Enzymatic hydrolysis was applied before derivatization, whereas extraction conditions, i.e. the effects of time and temperature of extraction and salt addition were investigated by experimental design. Regression models and desirability functions were applied to find the experimental conditions providing the highest global extraction response. These conditions were found in correspondence of an extraction temperature of 90 °C, an extraction time of 90 min and 25% NaCl added to urine samples. The capabilities of the developed method were proved obtaining limit of quantitations in the 0.1-2 μg/l range, thus allowing the bio-monitoring of these compounds in human urine. A good precision was observed both in terms of intra-batch and inter-batch repeatability with RSD always lower than 14%. Recoveries ranging from 98(±3) to 121(±1)% and extraction yields higher than 72% were also obtained. Finally, the analysis of urine specimens of coke-oven workers revealed analytes' concentrations in the 2.2-164 μg/l range, proving the exposure to PAHs of the involved workers.

AB - An innovative and simple headspace solid-phase microextraction method using a novel diethoxydiphenylsilane fibre based on in situ derivatization with acetic anhydride was optimized and validated for the gas chromatography-mass spectrometry determination of some monohydroxy metabolites of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, namely 1-hydroxynaphthalene, 2-hydroxynaphtalene, 9-hydroxyfluorene, 2-hydroxyfluorene and 1-hydroxypyrene at trace levels in human urine. Enzymatic hydrolysis was applied before derivatization, whereas extraction conditions, i.e. the effects of time and temperature of extraction and salt addition were investigated by experimental design. Regression models and desirability functions were applied to find the experimental conditions providing the highest global extraction response. These conditions were found in correspondence of an extraction temperature of 90 °C, an extraction time of 90 min and 25% NaCl added to urine samples. The capabilities of the developed method were proved obtaining limit of quantitations in the 0.1-2 μg/l range, thus allowing the bio-monitoring of these compounds in human urine. A good precision was observed both in terms of intra-batch and inter-batch repeatability with RSD always lower than 14%. Recoveries ranging from 98(±3) to 121(±1)% and extraction yields higher than 72% were also obtained. Finally, the analysis of urine specimens of coke-oven workers revealed analytes' concentrations in the 2.2-164 μg/l range, proving the exposure to PAHs of the involved workers.

KW - Derivatization

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