Backround: Down syndrome (DS) is the most common aneuploidy in live-born individuals and it is well recognized with various phenotypic expressions. Although an extra chromosome 21 is the genetic cause for DS, specific phenotypic features may result from the duplication of smaller regions of the chromosome and more studies need to define genotypic and phenotypic correlations. Case report: We report on a 26. year old male with partial trisomy 21 presenting mild clinical symptoms relative to DS including borderline intellectual disability. In particular, the face and the presence of hypotonia and keratoconus were suggestive for the DS although the condition remained unnoticed until his adult age array comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH) revealed a 10.1. Mb duplication in 21q22.13q22.3 and a small deletion of 2.2. Mb on chromosomal band 7q36 arising from a paternal translocation t(7;21). The 21q duplication encompasses the gene DYRK1. Conclusion: Our data support the evidence of specific regions on distal 21q whose duplication results in phenotypes recalling the typical DS face. Although the duplication region contains DYRK1, which has previously been implicated in the causation of DS, our patient has a borderline IQ confirming that their duplication is not sufficient to cause the full DS phenotype.
- Array comparative genome hybridization (aCGH)
- Chromosome 21
- Down syndrome
- Partial trisomy 21q
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