A pooled analysis of case-control studies of thyroid cancer. II. Menstrual and reproductive factors

Eva Negri, Luigino Dal Maso, Elaine Ron, Carlo La Vecchia, Steven D. Mark, Susan Preston-Martin, Anne McTiernan, Laurence Kolonel, Yasuhiko Yoshimoto, Fan Jin, Gun Wingren, Maria Rosaria Galanti, Lennart Hardell, Eystein Glattre, Eiliv Lund, Fabio Levi, Dimitrios Linos, Claudia Braga, Silvia Franceschi

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

123 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Objective: It has been suggested that female hormones, and hence menstrual and reproductive factors, play a role in thyroid cancer etiology. Epidemiological data, however, are limited and inconsistent, partly because of the small number of cases included in each study. To clarify the etiology of thyroid cancer, we conducted a pooled analysis of original data from 14 case-control studies, 4 from the United States, 2 from Asia, and 8 from Europe. Methods: This analysis included a total of 2247 female cases of thyroid cancer (80% papillary) and 3699 control women. Pooled odds ratios (OR) were estimated using logistic regression, conditioning on study and (i) matching sets for individually matched studies, or (ii) quinquennia of age for the other studies. Additional terms for age and history of radiation exposure were included in the regression equations. Results: The OR per year of later menarche was 1.04 (95% confidence interval (CI) 1.0-1.1). Compared to premenopausal women, the OR was 1.3 for women with natural menopause, and 1.8 for those with artificial menopause, but the studies were heterogeneous and the association may be due, at least in part, to diagnostic or ascertainment bias. Parity, spontaneous or induced abortions and history of infertility were not associated with thyroid cancer risk. The OR was above unity in women reporting later age at first birth (OR = 1.1, 95% CI 1.0-1.3 for 5-year delay) and higher in the first years after a birth. Conclusions: The associations of menstrual and reproductive factors with thyroid cancer risk were generally weak, but appeared stronger among women diagnosed with thyroid cancer at younger ages.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)143-155
Number of pages13
JournalCancer Causes and Control
Volume10
Issue number2
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 1999

Fingerprint

Thyroid Neoplasms
Case-Control Studies
Odds Ratio
Induced Abortion
Menopause
Confidence Intervals
Menarche
Birth Order
Age Factors
Spontaneous Abortion
Parity
Infertility
Logistic Models
Parturition
Hormones

Keywords

  • Case-control studies
  • Menarche
  • Menopause
  • Pregnancy
  • Thyroid cancer

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Oncology
  • Epidemiology
  • Cancer Research

Cite this

A pooled analysis of case-control studies of thyroid cancer. II. Menstrual and reproductive factors. / Negri, Eva; Dal Maso, Luigino; Ron, Elaine; La Vecchia, Carlo; Mark, Steven D.; Preston-Martin, Susan; McTiernan, Anne; Kolonel, Laurence; Yoshimoto, Yasuhiko; Jin, Fan; Wingren, Gun; Galanti, Maria Rosaria; Hardell, Lennart; Glattre, Eystein; Lund, Eiliv; Levi, Fabio; Linos, Dimitrios; Braga, Claudia; Franceschi, Silvia.

In: Cancer Causes and Control, Vol. 10, No. 2, 1999, p. 143-155.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Negri, E, Dal Maso, L, Ron, E, La Vecchia, C, Mark, SD, Preston-Martin, S, McTiernan, A, Kolonel, L, Yoshimoto, Y, Jin, F, Wingren, G, Galanti, MR, Hardell, L, Glattre, E, Lund, E, Levi, F, Linos, D, Braga, C & Franceschi, S 1999, 'A pooled analysis of case-control studies of thyroid cancer. II. Menstrual and reproductive factors', Cancer Causes and Control, vol. 10, no. 2, pp. 143-155. https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1008880429862
Negri, Eva ; Dal Maso, Luigino ; Ron, Elaine ; La Vecchia, Carlo ; Mark, Steven D. ; Preston-Martin, Susan ; McTiernan, Anne ; Kolonel, Laurence ; Yoshimoto, Yasuhiko ; Jin, Fan ; Wingren, Gun ; Galanti, Maria Rosaria ; Hardell, Lennart ; Glattre, Eystein ; Lund, Eiliv ; Levi, Fabio ; Linos, Dimitrios ; Braga, Claudia ; Franceschi, Silvia. / A pooled analysis of case-control studies of thyroid cancer. II. Menstrual and reproductive factors. In: Cancer Causes and Control. 1999 ; Vol. 10, No. 2. pp. 143-155.
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AU - Negri, Eva

AU - Dal Maso, Luigino

AU - Ron, Elaine

AU - La Vecchia, Carlo

AU - Mark, Steven D.

AU - Preston-Martin, Susan

AU - McTiernan, Anne

AU - Kolonel, Laurence

AU - Yoshimoto, Yasuhiko

AU - Jin, Fan

AU - Wingren, Gun

AU - Galanti, Maria Rosaria

AU - Hardell, Lennart

AU - Glattre, Eystein

AU - Lund, Eiliv

AU - Levi, Fabio

AU - Linos, Dimitrios

AU - Braga, Claudia

AU - Franceschi, Silvia

PY - 1999

Y1 - 1999

N2 - Objective: It has been suggested that female hormones, and hence menstrual and reproductive factors, play a role in thyroid cancer etiology. Epidemiological data, however, are limited and inconsistent, partly because of the small number of cases included in each study. To clarify the etiology of thyroid cancer, we conducted a pooled analysis of original data from 14 case-control studies, 4 from the United States, 2 from Asia, and 8 from Europe. Methods: This analysis included a total of 2247 female cases of thyroid cancer (80% papillary) and 3699 control women. Pooled odds ratios (OR) were estimated using logistic regression, conditioning on study and (i) matching sets for individually matched studies, or (ii) quinquennia of age for the other studies. Additional terms for age and history of radiation exposure were included in the regression equations. Results: The OR per year of later menarche was 1.04 (95% confidence interval (CI) 1.0-1.1). Compared to premenopausal women, the OR was 1.3 for women with natural menopause, and 1.8 for those with artificial menopause, but the studies were heterogeneous and the association may be due, at least in part, to diagnostic or ascertainment bias. Parity, spontaneous or induced abortions and history of infertility were not associated with thyroid cancer risk. The OR was above unity in women reporting later age at first birth (OR = 1.1, 95% CI 1.0-1.3 for 5-year delay) and higher in the first years after a birth. Conclusions: The associations of menstrual and reproductive factors with thyroid cancer risk were generally weak, but appeared stronger among women diagnosed with thyroid cancer at younger ages.

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