OBJECTIVES: To complement existing data with population-based cancer control outcomes that account for the effect of other-cause mortality (OCM). Cancer control rates are virtually equivalent between partial (PN) and radical nephrectomy (RN) for patients with T1aN0M0 renal cell carcinoma (RCC). To date, only 6 studies from centers of excellence examined cancer control rates after PN vs RN for T1aN0M0 RCC. OCM was unaccounted for in those studies, which may introduce a bias. We relied on the surveillance, epidemiology, and end results (SEER) database and assessed cancer-specific mortality (CSM) after either PN or RN for T1aN0M0 RCC, in competing-risks models. METHODS: Between 1988 and 2004, the SEER-9 database identified 1622 PN (22.3%) and 5658 RN (77.7%) T1aN0M0 RCC. Competing-risks regression models, controlling for OCM and matched for age, year of surgery, tumor size, and Fuhrman grade, addressed the effect of nephrectomy type (PN vs RN) on CSM. RESULTS: At 5 years, in a PN and RN matched-population controlling for OCM, CSM after PN and RN was respectively 1.8% vs 2.5% (P = .5). The CSM rates in this cohort for patients aged <70 years were respectively 1.0% and 3.4% (P = .7). CONCLUSIONS: This competing-risks population-based analysis confirmed the CSM equivalence between PN and RN for T1aN0M0 RCC and showed virtually perfect CSM-free rates (97.5% or better) even in older patients.
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