Purpose: To determine whether the androgen receptor (AR) inhibitor, enzalutamide, improves effectiveness of endocrine therapy (ET) in hormone receptor-positive (HRþ) breast cancer. Patients and Methods: In this phase II trial, patients with HRþ/HER2 normal advanced/metastatic breast cancer were randomized 1:1 to exemestane 25 mg with placebo or exemestane 50 mg with enzalutamide 160 mg daily (NCT02007512). Two parallel cohorts enrolled patients with 0 (cohort 1) or 1 (cohort 2) prior ET for advanced disease. Progression-free survival (PFS) was the primary endpoint in the intent-to-treat (ITT) population of each cohort. Biomarkers were evaluated in an exploratory analysis. Results: Overall, 247 patients were randomized (cohort 1, n ¼ 127andcohort2,n¼120).PFSwasnotimprovedineithercohortof the ITT population [HR, 0.82 (95% confidence interval (CI), 0.54-1.26); P ¼ 0.3631 for cohort 1 and HR, 1.02 (95% CI, 0.66-1.59); P ¼ 0.9212 for cohort 2]. In cohort 1, high levels of AR mRNA were associated with greater benefit of enzalutamide (Pinteraction ¼ 0.0048). This effect was particularly apparent in patients with both high levels of AR mRNA and low levels of ESR1 mRNA [HR, 0.24 (95% CI, 0.10-0.60); P ¼ 0.0011]. The most common any grade adverse events in the enzalutamide arms were nausea (39%) in cohort 1 and fatigue (37%) in cohort 2. Conclusions: Enzalutamide with exemestane was well tolerated. While PFS was not improved by the addition of enzalutamide to exemestane in an unselected population, ET-naive patients with high AR mRNA levels, particularly in combination with low ESR1 mRNA levels, may benefit from enzalutamide with exemestane.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Cancer Research