A randomized trial comparing the introduction of ritonavir or indinavir in 1251 nucleoside-experienced patients with advanced HIV infection

M. Floridia, C. Tomino, R. Bucciardini, D. Ricciardulli, V. Fragola, M. F. Pirillo, R. Amici, G. Giannini, C. M. Galluzzo, M. Andreotti, A. C. Seeber, A. Ammassari, A. Cingolani, A. Lazzarin, G. Scalise, A. Cargnel, F. Suter, F. Milazzo, G. Pastore, M. MoroniR. Ciammarughi, R. Pini, G. Carosi, C. D'Amato, L. Contu, E. Concia, L. Bonazzi, F. Aiuti, G. Vigevani, S. Vella

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ISS-IP1, a multicenter, randomized, 48-week open trial, was designed to compare the introduction of ritonavir or indinavir in patients with previous nucleoside experience and CD4+ cell counts below 50/mm3. Concomitant antiretroviral treatment with nucleoside analogs was allowed. Primary efficacy measures were survival and time to a new AIDS-defining event or death, analyzed through the whole period of observation by the intention-to-treat approach. Primary toxicity measures were time to treatment discontinuation and adverse events, grade at least 3/serious, analyzed by an on-treatment approach. Evaluation of efficacy also included CD4+ cell and RNA response. The trial enrolled 1251 patients in 5 months. At baseline, mean CD4+ cell count was about 20 cells/mm3 and mean HIV RNA copy number was 4.9 log10/ml in both groups. Overall, 402 patients in the ritonavir group and 250 patients in the indinavir group permanently discontinued the assigned treatment (relative risk, 1.96; 95 % CI, 1.68-2.30; p = 0.0001), with most of this difference dependent on a higher number of discontinuation for adverse events in the ritonavir group. After a mean follow-up of 307 days (ritonavir, 304; indinavir, 309), 124 deaths (ritonavir, 61; indinavir, 63; relative risk, 0.96; 95% CI, 0.67-1.36; p = 0.80) and 330 new AIDS-defining events (ritonavir, 170; indinavir, 160; relative risk, 1.05; 95% CI, 0.85-1.31; p = 0.60) were observed. CD4+ cell counts increased in both groups in patients still receiving treatment, with about 100 cells gained by week 24 and 150 cells gained by week 48. Body weight also increased over time in both groups. Analysis of RNA response showed a decrease of 1.5 log10 or higher in both treatment groups. Overall, 400 patients in the ritonavir group and 338 patients in the indinavir group developed at least one grade 3/serious new adverse event during follow-up (relative risk, 1.48; 95% CI, 1.28-1.72; p = 0.0001). Favorable CD4+ cell and RNA responses at 24 and 48 weeks were observed in both groups of patients remaining on treatment. Indinavir showed slightly better effects in sustaining RNA, CD4+ cell, and body weight responses. Ritonavir and indinavir results were comparable in terms of clinical outcome (survival and AIDS-defining events).

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1809-1820
Number of pages12
JournalAIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
Issue number17
Publication statusPublished - Nov 20 2000

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Immunology
  • Virology


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