Background: Invasive fungal infections (IFI) represent a common side effect of allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplant (allo-SCT), resulting in increased non relapse mortality (NRM) and reduced overall survival (OS) rates. Seventy-five days of Fluconazole 400 mg/d represents the standard primary antifungal prophylaxis (PAP) after allo-SCT, especially for low-risk transplants. However, the ideal dosage of fluconazole has never been tested. Methods: Here, we report the experience of our institution on 113 consecutive patients receiving an allo-SCT from a HLA identical sibling between 1999 and 2015, where PAP consisted of fluconazole 100 mg/d only during the pre-engraftment phase. At the time of transplant, all patients were considered at low-risk for mold infection according to ECIL-5 guidelines. Results: Cumulative incidence of possible-probable-proven IFI was 11.7%, while proven-probable (PP-IFI) occurred in 5.5% of patients by day 100 post transplant. Of note, only 1 patient developed invasive Candidiasis due to a non-albicans strain and stool-screening tests were negative for colonization by Candida albicans species. The incidence of 1-year acute and 2-year chronic graft-versus-host-disease (GVHD) was 30% and 45%, respectively. Three-year OS and 1-year NRM were 53% and 11.3%, respectively. Conclusion: In summary, fungal prophylaxis with fluconazole 100 mg/d results in very low incidence of PP-IFI, GVHD and NRM in low-risk allo-SCT.
- allogeneic stem cell transplant
- primary antifungal prophylaxis
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Infectious Diseases