We describe an immunocompetent 61-year-old woman who was negative for human immunodeficiency virus and who had recurrent human herpesvirus 8 (HHV-8) infection associated with a relapsing systemic inflammatory syndrome characterized by fever, lymphadenopathy, splenomegaly, edema, arthrosynovitis, and rash. Kaposi's sarcoma developed 10 months after the initial clinical presentation. A correlation was documented between the recurrent clinical manifestations and the HHV-8 load in plasma and peripheral-blood mononuclear cells. Histologic examination of an enlarged lymph node heavily infected with HHV-8 revealed an atypical lymphoproliferative disorder characterized by paracortical hyperplasia and collapsed primary and secondary follicles.
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