A Retrospective Study on Dietary FODMAP Intake in Celiac Patients Following a Gluten-Free Diet

Leda Roncoroni, Luca Elli, Luisa Doneda, Karla A. Bascuñán, Maurizio Vecchi, Federico Morreale, Alice Scricciolo, Vincenza Lombardo, Nicoletta Pellegrini

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Abstract

Our aim was to evaluate the intake of foods containing fermentable oligo/di/mono-saccharides and polyols (FODMAP) as a possible factor that induces gastrointestinal symptoms in treated celiac disease (CD) patients. We collected seven-day weighed food records for 104 CD patients and 91 healthy volunteers. All evaluated food items were from sources with high and low content of FODMAP, which were divided into cereals and sweets, sweeteners and soft drinks, fruits, dried fruits, and vegetables. Nutrient intake was calculated using the food database of the European Institute of Oncology. The symptoms reported were assessed by a Rome IV Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) diagnostic questionnaire and by specific questions for the evaluation of functional gastrointestinal disorders (FGIDs). The 12% of CD patients met IBS symptoms criteria as opposed to 6% of controls (p = 0.09) and 27% of patients reported FGIDs symptoms vs. 22% of healthy controls (p = 0.42). The intake by CD patients was significantly higher than healthy volunteers for: sweeteners and sugars with low content of FODMAP (p = 0.0007), fruits, dried fruits, and vegetables high in FODMAP (p = 0.003) and low in FODMAP (p = 0.04) when compared to controls. CD patients had a lower intake of cereals and sweets with a high content of FODMAP (p = 0.00001). Healthy volunteers consumed significantly higher alcoholic beverages and fats high in FODMAP (both p < 0.044). The mean daily intake of other food categories did not differ between both groups. Even though CD patients had a low intake of gluten-free cereals high in FODMAP, they still consumed a significant amount of fruits and vegetables high in FODMAP. The clinical effect of a concomitant gluten-free diet and low-FODMAP diet should be prospectively evaluated as a supportive therapy in CD patients.

Original languageEnglish
JournalNutrients
Volume10
Issue number11
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Nov 15 2018

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Keywords

  • celiac disease
  • FODMAP intake
  • gastrointestinal symptoms
  • gluten-free diet
  • irritable bowel syndrome

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Food Science
  • Nutrition and Dietetics

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