A review and update on waterborne viral diseases associated with swimming pools

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Infectious agents, including bacteria, viruses, protozoa, and molds, may threaten the health of swimming pool bathers. Viruses are a major cause of recreationally-associated waterborne diseases linked to pools, lakes, ponds, thermal pools/spas, rivers, and hot springs. They can make their way into waters through the accidental release of fecal matter, body fluids (saliva, mucus), or skin flakes by symptomatic or asymptomatic carriers. We present an updated overview of epidemiological data on viral outbreaks, a project motivated, among other things, by the availability of improved viral detection methodologies. Special attention is paid to outbreak investigations (source of the outbreak, pathways of transmission, chlorination/disinfection). Epidemiological studies on incidents of viral contamination of swimming pools under non-epidemic conditions are also reviewed.

Original languageEnglish
Article number166
JournalInternational Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - Jan 2 2019


  • Adenovirus
  • Enterovirus
  • Hepatitis A virus
  • Norovirus
  • Swimming pool
  • Waterborne disease

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health
  • Health, Toxicology and Mutagenesis


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