A review of integrated staging systems for renal cell carcinoma

Malek Meskawi, Maxine Sun, Quoc Dien Trinh, Marco Bianchi, Jens Hansen, Zhe Tian, Michael Rink, Salima Ismail, Shahrokh F. Shariat, Francesco Montorsi, Paul Perrotte, Pierre I. Karakiewicz

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Context: Several outstanding integrated staging systems (ISSs) have been devised for patients with renal cell carcinoma (RCC). Objective: To review the available literature on existing ISSs. Evidence acquisition: A nonsystematic search was conducted using Medline and PubMed databases. Original articles, review articles, and editorials addressing the development and validation of ISSs in RCC published up to February 2012 were identified. The search was limited to the English language. Keywords included kidney cancer, renal cell carcinoma, nomogram, risk group, prognosis, predictive accuracy, external validation, and discrimination. Links to related articles and cross-reading of citations in related articles were surveyed. All articles with a pertinent level of evidence were included and represent the basis for the current review article. Evidence synthesis: In nephrectomy patients, a variety of models have been developed for prediction of recurrence and survival, both in the preoperative and postoperative settings. Several of those models relied on variables that are not routinely available in clinical practice. Not all tools were externally validated. In patients treated with systemic therapy, novel tools that were developed and validated in the targeted therapy era replaced tools devised during the cytokine era. Conclusions: The development of ISSs for prediction of risk or prognosis in the context of RCC has evolved and improved. In the targeted therapy era, the urologic community should focus on direct comparisons of existing tools with the intent of identifying the optimal ISS for each specific end point.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)303-314
Number of pages12
JournalEuropean Urology
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - Aug 2012


  • Integrated staging system
  • Prognostic models
  • Renal cell carcinoma

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Urology


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