A revised short version of the depression questionnaire

Giulio Vidotto, Loretta Moroni, Roberto Burro, Luca Filipponi, Gianluigi Balestroni, Ornella Bettinardi, Gisella Bruletti, Ines Giorgi, Marianna Naimo, Giorgio Bertolotti

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


BACKGROUND: The Depression Questionnaire (QD) is an instrument designed to measure depression in an inpatient-rehabilitation setting. This study proposes a reduced version of the original 24-item QD, to make it better suited to the characteristics of patients in this setting. METHODS: The study population consisted of 801 individuals admitted to cardiac rehabilitation (564 males and 237 females) who had validly completed the original version of the QD. Data were analyzed first through confirmatory factor analysis and then using logistic models. RESULTS: Factor analysis of QD-24 items form, confirmed the plausibility of the monofactorial solution, both for males and females. Factor analysis combined with clinical observation suggested the possibility of reducing the QD to 17 items. Two further items were eliminated through use of simple logistic models. We thus obtained a shortened 15-item version of the QD (QD-R) that maintains a good index of separation (0.80), that is, good capacity to discriminate between individuals with different levels of depression, and a good item-trait interaction (χ153=165.37, P>0.05). A second confirmatory factor analysis applied to the 15-item monofactorial model confirmed the validity of this shortened version of the instrument. The QD-R scores significantly correlated with metres walked during the 6 minute walking test (r=-0.316; P

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)187-197
Number of pages11
JournalEuropean Journal of Cardiovascular Prevention and Rehabilitation
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - Apr 2010


  • Cardiac rehabilitation
  • Depression
  • Simple logistic models

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine
  • Epidemiology

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