Gentamicin is an antibiotic effective against Gram-negative infection, whose clinical use is limited by its nephrotoxicity. Oxygen free radicals are considered to be important mediators of gentamicin-mediated nephrotoxicity, but the exact nature of the radical in question is not known with certainty. We have investigated the potential role of superoxide in gentamicin-induced renal toxicity by using M40403, a low molecular weight synthetic manganese containing superoxide dismutase mimetic, which selectively removes superoxide. Administration of gentamicin at 100 mg/kg, s.c. for 5 days to rats induced a marked renal failure, characterised by a significant decrease in creatinine clearance and increased plasma creatinine levels, fractional excretion of sodium, lithium, urine γ glutamyl transferase (γGT) and daily urine volume. A significant increase in kidney myeloperoxidase activity and lipid peroxidation was also observed in gentamicin-treated rats. M40403 (10 mg/kg, i.p. for 5 days) attenuated all these parameters of damage. Immunohistochemical localisation demonstrated nitrotyrosine formation and poly(ADP-ribose) synthetase (PARS) activation in the proximal tubule of gentamicin-treated rats. Renal histology examination confirmed tubular necrosis. M40403 significantly prevented gentamicin-induced nitrotyrosine formation, poly(ADP-ribose) synthetase activation and tubular necrosis. These results confirm our hypothesis that superoxide anions play an important role in gentamicin-mediated nephropathy and support the possible clinical use of low molecular weight synthetic superoxide dismutase mimetics in those conditions that are associated with over production of superoxide.
- Compound M40403
- Superoxide anion
- Superoxide dismutase mimetic
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Cellular and Molecular Neuroscience