A study of X chromosome linkage with field dependence and spatial visualization

D. R. Goodenough, E. Gandini, I. Olkin, L. Pizzamiglio, D. Thayer, H. A. Witkin

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


The purposes of this report are to describe a design for the study of X linkage, to illustrate its application using cognitive test scores, and to offer a linkage hypothesis suggested by these data. Sixty-seven three-son families were examined for two X chromosome marker variables-red-green color vision and Xg(a) blood groups-and given a battery of cognitive tests of field dependence and spatial visualization abilities. Evidence was found to suggest that brothers who are identical in Xg(a) phenotype are more similar to each other in extent of field dependence than brothers who are different in Xg(a) phenotype. This result is tentative because of the small number of informative cases and the many linkage associations examined. If crossvalidated, such a finding would be consistent with the proposition that an X chromosome gene contributes to the field dependence-independence cognitive style.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)373-387
Number of pages15
JournalBehavior Genetics
Issue number5
Publication statusPublished - Sep 1977


  • embedded figures
  • field dependence
  • Italy
  • sex linkage
  • spatial ability

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Psychology(all)
  • Behavioral Neuroscience
  • Genetics(clinical)
  • Genetics


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