A subject-independent pattern-based brain-computer interface

Andreas M. Ray, Ranganatha Sitaram, Mohit Rana, Emanuele Pasqualotto, Korhan Buyukturkoglu, Cuntai Guan, Kai Keng Ang, Cristián Tejos, Francisco Zamorano, Francisco Aboitiz, Niels Birbaumer, Sergio Ruiz

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


While earlier Brain-Computer Interface (BCI) studies have mostly focused on modulating specific brain regions or signals, new developments in pattern classification of brain states are enabling real-time decoding and modulation of an entire functional network. The present study proposes a new method for real-time pattern classification and neurofeedback of brain states from electroencephalographic (EEG) signals. It involves the creation of a fused classification model based on the method of Common Spatial Patterns (CSPs) from data of several healthy individuals. The subject-independent model is then used to classify EEG data in real-time and provide feedback to new individuals. In a series of offline experiments involving training and testing of the classifier with individual data from 27 healthy subjects, a mean classification accuracy of 75.30% was achieved, demonstrating that the classification system at hand can reliably decode two types of imagery used in our experiments, i.e., happy emotional imagery and motor imagery. In a subsequent experiment it is shown that the classifier can be used to provide neurofeedback to new subjects, and that these subjects learn to “match” their brain pattern to that of the fused classification model in a few days of neurofeedback training. This finding can have important implications for future studies on neurofeedback and its clinical applications on neuropsychiatric disorders.

Original languageEnglish
Article number269
JournalFrontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
Issue numberOCTOBER
Publication statusPublished - Oct 20 2015


  • BCI
  • Common spatial patterns
  • Emotion imagery
  • Neurofeedback
  • Subject-independent classification

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Behavioral Neuroscience
  • Cognitive Neuroscience
  • Neuropsychology and Physiological Psychology


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