A technical guide to tDCS, and related non-invasive brain stimulation tools

A. J. Woods, A. Antal, M. Bikson, Paulo S. Boggio, A. R. Brunoni, P. Celnik, Leonardo G. Cohen, Felipe Fregni, C. S. Herrmann, E. S. Kappenman, H. Knotkova, David Liebetanz, Carlo Miniussi, Pedro Miranda, Walter Paulus, Alberto Priori, D. Reato, Charlotte J. Stagg, N. Wenderoth, Michael A. Nitsche

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Transcranial electrical stimulation (tES), including transcranial direct and alternating current stimulation (tDCS, tACS) are non-invasive brain stimulation techniques increasingly used for modulation of central nervous system excitability in humans. Here we address methodological issues required for tES application. This review covers technical aspects of tES, as well as applications like exploration of brain physiology, modelling approaches, tES in cognitive neurosciences, and interventional approaches. It aims to help the reader to appropriately design and conduct studies involving these brain stimulation techniques, understand limitations and avoid shortcomings, which might hamper the scientific rigor and potential applications in the clinical domain.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1031-1048
Number of pages18
JournalClinical Neurophysiology
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - Feb 1 2016


  • Design
  • Methodology review
  • Safety
  • Technical guide
  • Transcranial alternating current stimulation (tACS)
  • Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS)
  • Transcranial electrical stimulation (tES)
  • Transcranial random noise stimulation (tRNS)

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Clinical Neurology
  • Neurology
  • Physiology (medical)
  • Sensory Systems


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