In vivo dosimetry (IVD) is the last step of a radiotherapy quality control program aimed to ensure that the dose delivered is in agreement with that prescribed. IVD procedures based on single detectors are time-consuming and impossible to use for the modern radiotherapy techniques, based on static or kinetic beams (modulated in intensity fluence); this means that more efficient and practical methods are highly recommended. The practical method SOFTDISO, based on the use of electronic portal image device (EPID), provides two tests (i) the R ratio between the reconstructed and the planned isocenter doses to verify an agreement within 5% and (ii) the γ-analysis of the EPID images, to verify γ% ≥ 90% and γmean ≤ 0.4. This paper reports the results of 11,357 IVD tests carried out for 823 patients treated by three-dimensional conformal radiation therapy and volumetric modulated arc therapy techniques. In particular, the dose disagreements are reported distinguishing two kinds of causes, those of (i) class 1 that includes the errors due to inadequate quality controls and (ii) the class 2, due to patient morphological changes. About the tests out of tolerance, 6% were by VMAT and 21% by 3DCRT, but taking into account the only class 1 of errors, i.e., removing the causes of class 2, only 7% of patients examined presented at least one of the three mean indexes out of tolerance. The workload for IVD on 9 patients/day per linac is about 52 min/day but recently, a new automated SOFTDISO version has been implemented to reduce the time to about 34 min/day.
- Quality controls in radiotherapy
- Radiotherapy in vivo dosimetry
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Biomedical Engineering
- Computer Science Applications