A Whole Body Dosimetry Protocol for Peptide-Receptor Radionuclide Therapy (PRRT): 2D Planar Image and Hybrid 2D+3D SPECT/CT Image Methods

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Peptide-receptor-radionuclide-therapy (PPRT) is a targeted therapy that combines a short-range energy radionuclide with a substrate with high specificity for cancer cell receptors. After injection, the radiotracer is distributed throughout the entire body, with a higher uptake in tissues where targeted receptors are overexpressed. The use of beta/gamma radionuclide emitters enables therapy imaging (beta-emission) and post-therapy imaging (gamma-emission) to be performed at the same time. Post-treatment sequential images permit absorbed dose calculation based on local uptake and wash-in/wash-out kinetics. We implemented a hybrid method that combines information derived from both 2D and 3D images. Serial whole-body images and blood samples are acquired to estimate the absorbed dose to different organs at risk and to lesions disseminated throughout the body. A single 3D-SPECT/CT image, limited to the abdominal region, overcomes projection overlap on planar images of different structures such as the intestines and kidneys. The hybrid 2D+3D-SPECT/CT method combines the effective half-life information derived from 2D planar images with the local uptake distribution derived from 3D images. We implemented this methodology to estimate the absorbed dose for patients undergoing PRRT with 177Lu-PSMA-617. The methodology could, however, be implemented with other beta-gamma radiotracers. To date, 10 patients have been enrolled into the dosimetry study with 177Lu-PSMA-617 combined with drug protectors for kidneys and salivary glands (mannitol and glutamate tablets, respectively). The median ratio between kidney uptake at 24 h evaluated on planar images and 3D-SPECT/CT is 0.45 (range:0.32-1.23). The comparison between hybrid and full 3D approach has been tested on one patient, resulting in a 1.6% underestimation with respect to full 3D (2D: 0.829 mGy/MBq, hybrid: 0.315 mGy/MBq, 3D: 0.320 mGy/MBq). Treatment safety has been confirmed, with a mean absorbed dose of 0.73 mGy/MBq (range:0.26-1.07) for kidneys, 0.56 mGy/MBq (0.33-2.63) for the parotid glands and 0.63 mGy/MBq (0.23-1.20) for submandibular glands, values in accordance with previously published data.

Original languageEnglish
JournalJ. Visualized Exp.
Issue number158
Publication statusPublished - Apr 24 2020


  • Adult
  • Dipeptides/therapeutic use
  • Heterocyclic Compounds, 1-Ring/therapeutic use
  • Humans
  • Imaging, Three-Dimensional
  • Lutetium/therapeutic use
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Neoplasms/diagnostic imaging
  • Radioisotopes/therapeutic use
  • Radiometry
  • Receptors, Peptide/metabolism
  • Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography Computed Tomography


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