This paper describes the most important and frequent pathological findings obtained during Doppler examinations of abdominal and peripheral veins. In order to explain the origin of pathological flow changes and to correlate them with the underlying changes of arterial hemodynamics, the normal venous waveforms are first analyzed. Then pathological waves are presented and divided into three groups according to the sites where the lesions producing them are located: a) lesions of the vessel walls. In this group there are three main findings: absence of flow in thrombosis; increased velocity with associated loss of normal phasic changes in stenosis; decreased velocity and low vortices in dilated veins. b) Changes due to lesions from which flow comes from. Slow and low flows are encountered from ischemic tissues; high-velocity, turbulent, pulsating flows are due to presence of arteriovenous fistulas, both macro- and microscopic. c) Changes arising from lesions of vessels between the one we are examinining and the heart. Four main different changes can be found. Flow reversal due to lesions of the valvular system; absence of normal phasic variations produced by distal thrombosis; presence of phasic signals due to opening of shunts between a system with continuous flow and caval phasic patterns, increased amplitude of phasic changes in patients with congestive heart failure.
|Translated title of the contribution||Abdominal Doppler sonography: Pathologic venous signals|
|Number of pages||9|
|Journal||Giornale Italiano di Ultrasonologia|
|Publication status||Published - 1994|
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging