Accelerated aging in perinatally HIV-infected children: Clinical manifestations and pathogenetic mechanisms

Elena Chiappini, Martina Bianconi, Annalisa Dalzini, Maria Raffaella Petrara, Luisa Galli, Carlo Giaquinto, Anita De Rossi

Research output: Contribution to journalReview article

Abstract

Background: Premature aging and related diseases have been documented in HIV-infected adults. Data are now emerging also regarding accelerated aging process in HIV-infected children. Methods: A narrative review was performed searching studies on PubMed published in English language in 2004-2017, using appropriate key words, including "aging", "children", "HIV", "AIDS", "immunosenescence", "pathogenesis", "clinical conditions". Results: Premature immunosenescence phenotype of B and T cells in HIV-infected children is mediated through immune system activation and chronic inflammation. Ongoing inflammation processes have been documented by increased levels of pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPS), increased mitochondrial damage, higher levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines, and a positive correlation between sCD14 levels and percentages of activated CD8+ cells. Other reported features of premature aging include cellular replicative senescence, linked to an accelerated telomeres shortening. Finally, acceleration of age-associated methylation pattern and other epigenetic modifications have been described in HIV-infected children. All these features may favor the clinical manifestations related to premature aging. Lipid and bone metabolism, cancers, cardiovascular, renal, and neurological systems should be carefully monitored, particularly in children with detectable viremia and/or with CD4/CD8 ratio inversion. Conclusion: Aging processes in children with HIV infection impact their quality and length of life. Further studies regarding the mechanisms involved in premature aging are needed to search for potential targets of treatment.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)3610-3625
Number of pages16
JournalAging
Volume10
Issue number11
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Nov 1 2018

Keywords

  • Aging
  • Antiretroviral therapy
  • Children
  • HIV
  • Telomeres

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Ageing
  • Cell Biology

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