Accommodative esotropia: the state of the art

Andrea Lembo, Massimiliano Serafino, Marika Dello Strologo, Richard A. Saunders, Rupal H. Trivedi, Edoardo Villani, Paolo Nucci

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Purpose: To review the state of the art of Accommodative Esotropia (AE) through careful study of what has been reported up to the point in literature. Methods: A literature search was done on PubMed using key words including “Accommodative esotropia”, “Infantile esotropia”, “Strabismus” and “Accommodation”. We systematically reviewed and critically appraised what has been written about AE and we tried to analyze that according to the current management of AE. Results: Accommodative Esotropia (AE) is a form of strabismus characterized by convergent misalignment of the visual axes that can be associated with hyperopia and abnormal fusional divergence. Also abnormal accommodative convergence/accommodation ratio could be found. In lots of cases, AE initially presents as an intermittent esodeviation at age 1.5 to 4 years. The prevalence of AE has been estimated near 1-2% in the United States. The only treatment with an optical correction usually is successful in re-establishing alignment, but surgical correction is necessary in approximately 30% of cases.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1-9
Number of pages9
JournalInternational Ophthalmology
Publication statusAccepted/In press - Jan 13 2018


  • Accommodation
  • Accommodative esotropia
  • Amblyopia
  • Infantile esotropia
  • Strabismus

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Ophthalmology


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