Patients on dialysis are exposed to a series of factors that are known to be associated with risk of acute pancreatitis (AP), including medications, hyperparathyroidism, hypercalcemia, and hypertriglyceridemia; the role of the dialysis modality itself is still debated. Data regarding AP in children on chronic dialysis are scarce. Data from the Italian Registry of Pediatric Chronic Dialysis (IRPCD) confirm that children on dialysis have a significant increased relative risk (RR) for AP as compared with the general pediatric population (RR 60.4; 95% CI 3.2-214). Diagnosis of AP in patients on dialysis may be troublesome, because it can mimic other acute intraabdominal conditions and the role of serum pancreatic enzyme assays may be confounding. In this setting, instrumental imaging is mandatory. Conservative management such as fluid, bowel rest, and antibiotics is the mainstay of AP management, as necrotizing forms are rare. Mortality in the series of 12 patients from the IRPCD was high (25%), but deaths were not directly related to AP. Adult case series confirm that mortality among patients on dialysis who develop AP is highly variable (8-58%), but higher as compared to 10% mortality from AP in non-renal failure patients.