Acyclovir plus CMV immunoglobulin prophylaxis and early therapy with ganciclovir are effective and safe in CMV high-risk renal transplant pediatric recipients

F. Ginevri, G. Losurdo, I. Fontana, A. M. Rabagliati, L. Bonatto, R. Valente, P. Venzano, A. Nocera, G. C. Basile, U. Valente, R. Gusmano

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

Cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection is still a major cause of morbidity in high-risk renal transplant recipients. In the present report, we have reviewed our records of renal transplant pediatric recipients (RTPR; mean age 14.1 ± 4.9 years) since 1991, when we started a policy of CMV prophylaxis constituting high-dose oral acyclovir plus CMV hyperimmune immunoglobulins (Hlg) followed by early i. v. ganciclovir therapy in high-risk patients (i. e., CMV donor + / recipient -). Four patients received a kidney from a living relative (LR), 2 patients had one previous transplant, and 1 had a combined liver - kidney transplant. Thirty-three patients who were negative for CMV antibodies (ab) before transplantation received a kidney from CMV ab positive donors. The immunosuppressive regimen included cyclosporine A and steroids, with the addition of azathioprine in the 4 patients who received an LR kidney. Serial assessments for CMV antigenemia (pp 65) were routinely performed for 6 months after transplantation to define CMV infection. Among the 33 CMV seronegative recipients (R -) who received the graft from a CMV seropositive donor (D +), 18 (54.5%) experienced CMV infection, whereas among the 28 CMV R +, who received a graft from a CMV D +, 11 (39.3%) experienced CMV infection. With regard to CMV - related symptoms, only 2 patients suffered from a CMV syndrome (fever and leukopenia in 1 patient, fever and arthralgia in the other). In no case did the spectrum of CMV disease occur; only minor symptoms were present in 7 of the remaining CMV-infected patients (fever in 6 and leukopenia in 1). Rejection episodes and renal function did not differ between CMV-infected and non-CMV-infected patients. Our experiences support the use of prophylactic acyclovir plus CMV HIg followed by early therapy with i. v. ganciclovir to combat the risk of increased morbidity in high risk RTPR.

Original languageEnglish
JournalTransplant International
Volume11
Issue numberSUPPL. 1
Publication statusPublished - 1998

Keywords

  • CMV prophylaxis
  • CMV therapy
  • Cytomegalovirus infection
  • Kidney transplant
  • Pediatric recipients

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Transplantation

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