Addition of 5-fluorouracil to doxorubicin-paclitaxel sequence increases caspase-dependent apoptosis in breast cancer cell lines.

Wainer Zoli, Paola Ulivi, Anna Tesei, Francesco Fabbri, Marco Rosetti, Roberta Maltoni, Donata Casadei Giunchi, Luca Ricotti, Giovanni Brigliadori, Ivan Vannini, Dino Amadori

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Abstract

INTRODUCTION: The aim of the study was to evaluate the activity of a combination of doxorubicin (Dox), paclitaxel (Pacl) and 5-fluorouracil (5-FU), to define the most effective schedule, and to investigate the mechanisms of action in human breast cancer cells. METHODS: The study was performed on MCF-7 and BRC-230 cell lines. The cytotoxic activity was evaluated by sulphorhodamine B assay and the type of drug interaction was assessed by the median effect principle. Cell cycle perturbation and apoptosis were evaluated by flow cytometry, and apoptosis-related marker (p53, bcl-2, bax, p21), caspase and thymidylate synthase (TS) expression were assessed by western blot. RESULTS: 5-FU, used as a single agent, exerted a low cytotoxic activity in both cell lines. The Dox-->Pacl sequence produced a synergistic cytocidal effect and enhanced the efficacy of subsequent exposure to 5-FU in both cell lines. Specifically, the Dox-->Pacl sequence blocked cells in the G2-M phase, and the addition of 5-FU forced the cells to progress through the cell cycle or killed them. Furthermore, Dox-->Pacl pretreatment produced a significant reduction in basal TS expression in both cell lines, probably favoring the increase in 5-FU activity. The sequence Dox-->Pacl-->48-h washout-->5-FU produced a synergistic and highly schedule-dependent interaction (combination index <1), resulting in an induction of apoptosis in both experimental models regardless of hormonal, p53, bcl-2 or bax status. Apoptosis in MCF-7 cells was induced through caspase-9 activation and anti-apoptosis-inducing factor hyperexpression. In the BRC-230 cell line, the apoptotic process was triggered only by a caspase-dependent mechanism. In particular, at the end of the three-drug treatment, caspase-8 activation triggered downstream executioner caspase-3 and, to a lesser degree, caspase-7. CONCLUSION: In our experimental models, characterized by different biomolecular profiles representing the different biology of human breast cancers, the schedule Dox-->Pacl-->48-h washout-->5-FU was highly active and schedule-dependent and has recently been used to plan a phase I/II clinical protocol.

Original languageEnglish
JournalBreast Cancer Research
Volume7
Issue number5
Publication statusPublished - 2005

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Caspases
Paclitaxel
Fluorouracil
Doxorubicin
Apoptosis
Breast Neoplasms
Cell Line
Thymidylate Synthase
Appointments and Schedules
lissamine rhodamine B
Cell Cycle
G2 Phase
Clinical Protocols
Drug Interactions
Cell Division
Flow Cytometry
Western Blotting

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Addition of 5-fluorouracil to doxorubicin-paclitaxel sequence increases caspase-dependent apoptosis in breast cancer cell lines. / Zoli, Wainer; Ulivi, Paola; Tesei, Anna; Fabbri, Francesco; Rosetti, Marco; Maltoni, Roberta; Giunchi, Donata Casadei; Ricotti, Luca; Brigliadori, Giovanni; Vannini, Ivan; Amadori, Dino.

In: Breast Cancer Research, Vol. 7, No. 5, 2005.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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title = "Addition of 5-fluorouracil to doxorubicin-paclitaxel sequence increases caspase-dependent apoptosis in breast cancer cell lines.",
abstract = "INTRODUCTION: The aim of the study was to evaluate the activity of a combination of doxorubicin (Dox), paclitaxel (Pacl) and 5-fluorouracil (5-FU), to define the most effective schedule, and to investigate the mechanisms of action in human breast cancer cells. METHODS: The study was performed on MCF-7 and BRC-230 cell lines. The cytotoxic activity was evaluated by sulphorhodamine B assay and the type of drug interaction was assessed by the median effect principle. Cell cycle perturbation and apoptosis were evaluated by flow cytometry, and apoptosis-related marker (p53, bcl-2, bax, p21), caspase and thymidylate synthase (TS) expression were assessed by western blot. RESULTS: 5-FU, used as a single agent, exerted a low cytotoxic activity in both cell lines. The Dox-->Pacl sequence produced a synergistic cytocidal effect and enhanced the efficacy of subsequent exposure to 5-FU in both cell lines. Specifically, the Dox-->Pacl sequence blocked cells in the G2-M phase, and the addition of 5-FU forced the cells to progress through the cell cycle or killed them. Furthermore, Dox-->Pacl pretreatment produced a significant reduction in basal TS expression in both cell lines, probably favoring the increase in 5-FU activity. The sequence Dox-->Pacl-->48-h washout-->5-FU produced a synergistic and highly schedule-dependent interaction (combination index <1), resulting in an induction of apoptosis in both experimental models regardless of hormonal, p53, bcl-2 or bax status. Apoptosis in MCF-7 cells was induced through caspase-9 activation and anti-apoptosis-inducing factor hyperexpression. In the BRC-230 cell line, the apoptotic process was triggered only by a caspase-dependent mechanism. In particular, at the end of the three-drug treatment, caspase-8 activation triggered downstream executioner caspase-3 and, to a lesser degree, caspase-7. CONCLUSION: In our experimental models, characterized by different biomolecular profiles representing the different biology of human breast cancers, the schedule Dox-->Pacl-->48-h washout-->5-FU was highly active and schedule-dependent and has recently been used to plan a phase I/II clinical protocol.",
author = "Wainer Zoli and Paola Ulivi and Anna Tesei and Francesco Fabbri and Marco Rosetti and Roberta Maltoni and Giunchi, {Donata Casadei} and Luca Ricotti and Giovanni Brigliadori and Ivan Vannini and Dino Amadori",
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T1 - Addition of 5-fluorouracil to doxorubicin-paclitaxel sequence increases caspase-dependent apoptosis in breast cancer cell lines.

AU - Zoli, Wainer

AU - Ulivi, Paola

AU - Tesei, Anna

AU - Fabbri, Francesco

AU - Rosetti, Marco

AU - Maltoni, Roberta

AU - Giunchi, Donata Casadei

AU - Ricotti, Luca

AU - Brigliadori, Giovanni

AU - Vannini, Ivan

AU - Amadori, Dino

PY - 2005

Y1 - 2005

N2 - INTRODUCTION: The aim of the study was to evaluate the activity of a combination of doxorubicin (Dox), paclitaxel (Pacl) and 5-fluorouracil (5-FU), to define the most effective schedule, and to investigate the mechanisms of action in human breast cancer cells. METHODS: The study was performed on MCF-7 and BRC-230 cell lines. The cytotoxic activity was evaluated by sulphorhodamine B assay and the type of drug interaction was assessed by the median effect principle. Cell cycle perturbation and apoptosis were evaluated by flow cytometry, and apoptosis-related marker (p53, bcl-2, bax, p21), caspase and thymidylate synthase (TS) expression were assessed by western blot. RESULTS: 5-FU, used as a single agent, exerted a low cytotoxic activity in both cell lines. The Dox-->Pacl sequence produced a synergistic cytocidal effect and enhanced the efficacy of subsequent exposure to 5-FU in both cell lines. Specifically, the Dox-->Pacl sequence blocked cells in the G2-M phase, and the addition of 5-FU forced the cells to progress through the cell cycle or killed them. Furthermore, Dox-->Pacl pretreatment produced a significant reduction in basal TS expression in both cell lines, probably favoring the increase in 5-FU activity. The sequence Dox-->Pacl-->48-h washout-->5-FU produced a synergistic and highly schedule-dependent interaction (combination index <1), resulting in an induction of apoptosis in both experimental models regardless of hormonal, p53, bcl-2 or bax status. Apoptosis in MCF-7 cells was induced through caspase-9 activation and anti-apoptosis-inducing factor hyperexpression. In the BRC-230 cell line, the apoptotic process was triggered only by a caspase-dependent mechanism. In particular, at the end of the three-drug treatment, caspase-8 activation triggered downstream executioner caspase-3 and, to a lesser degree, caspase-7. CONCLUSION: In our experimental models, characterized by different biomolecular profiles representing the different biology of human breast cancers, the schedule Dox-->Pacl-->48-h washout-->5-FU was highly active and schedule-dependent and has recently been used to plan a phase I/II clinical protocol.

AB - INTRODUCTION: The aim of the study was to evaluate the activity of a combination of doxorubicin (Dox), paclitaxel (Pacl) and 5-fluorouracil (5-FU), to define the most effective schedule, and to investigate the mechanisms of action in human breast cancer cells. METHODS: The study was performed on MCF-7 and BRC-230 cell lines. The cytotoxic activity was evaluated by sulphorhodamine B assay and the type of drug interaction was assessed by the median effect principle. Cell cycle perturbation and apoptosis were evaluated by flow cytometry, and apoptosis-related marker (p53, bcl-2, bax, p21), caspase and thymidylate synthase (TS) expression were assessed by western blot. RESULTS: 5-FU, used as a single agent, exerted a low cytotoxic activity in both cell lines. The Dox-->Pacl sequence produced a synergistic cytocidal effect and enhanced the efficacy of subsequent exposure to 5-FU in both cell lines. Specifically, the Dox-->Pacl sequence blocked cells in the G2-M phase, and the addition of 5-FU forced the cells to progress through the cell cycle or killed them. Furthermore, Dox-->Pacl pretreatment produced a significant reduction in basal TS expression in both cell lines, probably favoring the increase in 5-FU activity. The sequence Dox-->Pacl-->48-h washout-->5-FU produced a synergistic and highly schedule-dependent interaction (combination index <1), resulting in an induction of apoptosis in both experimental models regardless of hormonal, p53, bcl-2 or bax status. Apoptosis in MCF-7 cells was induced through caspase-9 activation and anti-apoptosis-inducing factor hyperexpression. In the BRC-230 cell line, the apoptotic process was triggered only by a caspase-dependent mechanism. In particular, at the end of the three-drug treatment, caspase-8 activation triggered downstream executioner caspase-3 and, to a lesser degree, caspase-7. CONCLUSION: In our experimental models, characterized by different biomolecular profiles representing the different biology of human breast cancers, the schedule Dox-->Pacl-->48-h washout-->5-FU was highly active and schedule-dependent and has recently been used to plan a phase I/II clinical protocol.

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