Adenosine receptors and neuroinflammation

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

Neuroinflammation, mainly sustained by microglial activation, is one of the hallmarks of many neurodegenerative diseases, including Parkinson’s disease, Huntington’s disease, Alzheimer’s disease, and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. A broad spectrum of functionally distinct microglial phenotypes has been described, differently affecting the central nervous system (CNS) homeostasis. Manipulating the activation state of microglia toward neuroprotective functions can thus be of therapeutic benefit in a number of CNS diseases. Adenosine is an endogenous neuromodulator acting through the stimulation of four receptor subtypes, namely, A 1 , A 2A , A 2B , and A 3 receptors (Rs). Among its numerous effects, adenosine plays an important immunoregulatory role in the CNS. A 2A R activation, in particular, appears to play a crucial role mainly by regulating microglial function. Emerging evidence indicates that such receptors may mediate different and even opposite effects on brain inflammation according to the stage of the pathological condition and to the different inflammatory cell types involved in that particular stage. The complex role of A 2A Rs in controlling neuroinflammation is strongly dependent also on the interplay with other neurotransmitters. In this chapter, we will critically discuss the role of adenosine receptors in neuroinflammation (with particular emphasis on the A 2A R subtype), and its possible relevance to neurodegeneration.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)217-237
Number of pages21
JournalReceptors
Volume34
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Jan 1 2018

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Purinergic P1 Receptors
Adenosine
Neurotransmitter Agents
Central Nervous System
Central Nervous System Diseases
Huntington Disease
Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis
Microglia
Encephalitis
Neurodegenerative Diseases
Parkinson Disease
Alzheimer Disease
Homeostasis
Phenotype
Therapeutics

Keywords

  • Adenosine A receptors
  • Astrocytes
  • Central nervous system
  • Microglia
  • Neurodegenerative diseases

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Medicine(all)

Cite this

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title = "Adenosine receptors and neuroinflammation",
abstract = "Neuroinflammation, mainly sustained by microglial activation, is one of the hallmarks of many neurodegenerative diseases, including Parkinson’s disease, Huntington’s disease, Alzheimer’s disease, and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. A broad spectrum of functionally distinct microglial phenotypes has been described, differently affecting the central nervous system (CNS) homeostasis. Manipulating the activation state of microglia toward neuroprotective functions can thus be of therapeutic benefit in a number of CNS diseases. Adenosine is an endogenous neuromodulator acting through the stimulation of four receptor subtypes, namely, A 1 , A 2A , A 2B , and A 3 receptors (Rs). Among its numerous effects, adenosine plays an important immunoregulatory role in the CNS. A 2A R activation, in particular, appears to play a crucial role mainly by regulating microglial function. Emerging evidence indicates that such receptors may mediate different and even opposite effects on brain inflammation according to the stage of the pathological condition and to the different inflammatory cell types involved in that particular stage. The complex role of A 2A Rs in controlling neuroinflammation is strongly dependent also on the interplay with other neurotransmitters. In this chapter, we will critically discuss the role of adenosine receptors in neuroinflammation (with particular emphasis on the A 2A R subtype), and its possible relevance to neurodegeneration.",
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