Cancer-associated adipocytes have functional roles in tumor development through secreted adipocyte-derived factors and exosomes and also through metabolic symbiosis, where the malignant cells take up the lactate, fatty acids and glutamine produced by the neighboring adipocytes. Recent research has demonstrated the value of adipocytes as cell-based delivery platforms for drugs (or prodrugs), nucleic acids or loaded nanoparticles for cancer therapy. This strategy takes advantage of the biocompatibility of the delivery system, its ability to locate the tumor site and also the predisposition of cancer cells to come in functional contact with the adipocytes from the tumor microenvironment for metabolic sustenance. Also, their exosomal content can be used in the context of cancer stem cell reprogramming or as a delivery vehicle for different cargos, like non-coding nucleic acids. Moreover, the process of adipocytes isolation, processing and charging is quite straightforward, with minimal economical expenses. The present review comprehensively presents the role of adipocytes in cancer (in the context of obese and non-obese individuals), the main methods for isolation and characterization and also the current therapeutic applications of these cells as delivery platforms in the oncology sector.