Adipokines, myokines, and cardiokines: The role of nutritional interventions

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It is now established that adipose tissue, skeletal muscle, and heart are endocrine organs and secrete in normal and in pathological conditions several molecules, called, respectively, adipokines, myokines, and cardiokines. These secretory proteins constitute a closed network that plays a crucial role in obesity and above all in cardiac diseases associated with obesity. In particular, the interaction between adipokines, myokines, and cardiokines is mainly involved in inflammatory and oxidative damage characterized obesity condition. Identifying new therapeutic agents or treatment having a positive action on the expression of these molecules could have a key positive effect on the management of obesity and its cardiac complications. Results from recent studies indicate that several nutritional interventions, including nutraceutical supplements, could represent new therapeutic agents on the adipo-myo-cardiokines network. This review focuses the biological action on the main adipokines, myokines and cardiokines involved in obesity and cardiovascular diseases and describe the principal nutraceutical approaches able to regulate leptin, adiponectin, apelin, irisin, natriuretic peptides, and follistatin-like 1 expression.

Original languageEnglish
Article number8372
Pages (from-to)1-27
Number of pages27
JournalInternational Journal of Molecular Sciences
Issue number21
Publication statusPublished - Nov 1 2020


  • Adipokines
  • Cardiokines
  • Cardiovascular diseases
  • Metabolic syndrome
  • Myokines
  • Nutraceuticals
  • Obesity

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Catalysis
  • Molecular Biology
  • Spectroscopy
  • Computer Science Applications
  • Physical and Theoretical Chemistry
  • Organic Chemistry
  • Inorganic Chemistry


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