Adiponectin is an adipocytokine with insulin-sensitizing and antiatherogenic properties. Reduced concentrations of adiponectin precede the onset of type 2 diabetes and the development of atherosclerosis. Our aim was to quantify adiponectin concentrations in small for gestational age (SGA) children. Fifty-one SGA children, 24 obese, and 17 short-normal children with birth weight appropriate for gestational age (short-AGA) were studied. The statures of the SGA children were corrected for their midparental height and subdivided into two groups according to their corrected height: catch-up growth group, children with corrected height of 0 z-score or greater (n = 17); and noncatch-up growth group, subjects with corrected height less than 0 z-score (n = 34). SGA children showed adiponectin levels significantly lower than short-normal children (35.2 ± 3.5 vs. 80.4 ± 26.6 μg/ml; P <0.0001) and obese children (77.5 ± 39.4 μg/ml; P <0.0001). Catch-up growth children showed adiponectin levels significantly lower than noncatch-up growth subjects (29.4 ± 10.3 vs. 38.1 ± 11.5 μg/ ml; P = 0.01). Adiponectin concentrations were inversely related to height z-score, corrected stature, weight, and body mass index and were positively related to birth weight. Our results suggest that adiponectin levels are reduced in SGA children and are even lower in those with postnatal catch-up growth. Whether this finding implies a higher risk of developing type 2 diabetes and atherosclerosis remains to be established.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism