Osteosarcoma (OS) is a primary bone sarcoma, manifesting as osteogenesis by malignant cells. Nowadays, patients' quality of life has been improved, however continuing high rates of limb amputation, pulmonary metastasis and drug toxicity, remain unresolved issues. Thus, effective osteosarcoma therapies are still required. Recently, the potentialities of biophysical treatments in osteosarcoma have been evaluated and seem to offer a promising future, thanks in this field as they are less invasive. Several approaches have been investigated such as hyperthermia (HT), high intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU), low intensity pulsed ultrasound (LIPUS) and sono- and photodynamic therapies (SDT, PDT). This review aims to summarize in vitro and in vivo studies and clinical trials employing biophysical stimuli in osteosarcoma treatment. The findings underscore how the technological development of biophysical therapies might represent an adjuvant role and, in some cases, alternative role to the surgery, radio and chemotherapy treatment of OS. Among them, the most promising are HIFU and HT, which are already employed in OS patient treatment, while LIPUS/SDT and PDT seem to be particularly interesting for their low toxicity.
- adjuvant therapies
- biophysical stimuli