Adjuvant nivolumab for stage III/IV melanoma: Evaluation of safety outcomes and association with recurrence-free survival

Mario Mandala, James Larkin, Paolo Antonio Ascierto, Michele Del Vecchio, Helen Gogas, C. Lance Cowey, Ana Arance, Stéphane Dalle, Michael Schenker, Jean Jacques Grob, Vanna Chiarion-Sileni, Ivan Marquez, Marcus O. Butler, Anna Maria Di Giacomo, Jose Lutzky, Luis De La Cruz-Merino, Victoria Atkinson, Petr Arenberger, Andrew Hill, Leslie FecherMichael Millward, Nikhil I. Khushalani, Veerle De Pril, Maurice Lobo, Jeffrey Weber

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

Background Several therapeutic options are now available in the adjuvant melanoma setting, mandating an understanding of their benefit €'risk profiles in order to make informed treatment decisions. Herein we characterize adjuvant nivolumab select (immune-related) treatment-related adverse events (TRAEs) and evaluate possible associations between safety and recurrence-free survival (RFS) in the phase III CheckMate 238 trial. Methods Patients with resected stage IIIB-C or IV melanoma received nivolumab 3 mg/kg every 2 weeks (n=452) or ipilimumab 10 mg/kg every 3 weeks for four doses and then every 12 weeks (n=453) for up to 1 year or until disease recurrence, unacceptable toxicity, or consent withdrawal. First-occurrence and all-occurrence select TRAEs were analyzed within discrete time intervals: from 0 to 3 months of treatment, from >3-12 months of treatment, and from the last dose (regardless of early or per-protocol treatment discontinuation) to 100 days after the last dose. Possible associations between select TRAEs and RFS were investigated post randomization in 3-month landmark analyses and in Cox model analyses (including a time-varying covariate of select TRAE), within and between treatment groups. Results From the first nivolumab dose to 100 days after the last dose, first-occurrence select TRAEs were reported in 67.7% (306/452) of patients. First-occurrence select TRAEs were reported most frequently from 0 to 3 months (48.0%), during which the most common were pruritus (15.5%) and diarrhea (15.3%). Most select TRAEs resolved within 6 months. There was no clear association between the occurrence (or not) of select TRAEs and RFS by landmark analysis or by Cox model analysis within treatment arms or comparing nivolumab to the ipilimumab comparator arm. Conclusion Results of this safety analysis of nivolumab in adjuvant melanoma were consistent with its established safety profile. In the discrete time intervals evaluated, most first-occurrence TRAEs occurred early during treatment and resolved. No association between RFS and select TRAEs was evident. Trial registration number NCT02388906.

Original languageEnglish
Article numbere003188
JournalJournal for ImmunoTherapy of Cancer
Volume9
Issue number8
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Aug 27 2021

Keywords

  • adjuvants
  • immunologic
  • immunotherapy
  • melanoma
  • programmed cell death 1 receptor

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Immunology and Allergy
  • Immunology
  • Molecular Medicine
  • Oncology
  • Pharmacology
  • Cancer Research

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